1000 results for “Criminal Justice”.
Criminal justice and criminology developed from two major fields of study: the law and sociology. While related, the two terms are distinct. Criminology is the study of crime, including its costs, causes, and consequences. In contrast, criminal justice is the study of system in which behavior is designated as criminal and then those crimes are detected, tried, and punished. While criminology focuses primarily on the social aspects of crime, criminal justice focuses primarily on the legal aspects of crime. However, the relationship between law and society is well-established. Not only do social norms and values help dictate what behaviors are considered criminal, but also the designation of behaviors as illegal or legal helps dictate what a society views as moral and ethical. Therefore, criminal justice and criminology majors need to have a thorough understanding of both fields.
Criminology is a branch of sociology. There are three sociological approaches to crime: the Classical School, the Positivist School, and the Chicago School. While only formally studied in recent times, social theories about criminology have been circulating since the development of legal systems and laws. Criminologists look at how society impacts criminality, but also how criminality impacts society. More specifically, criminologists look at the broader details of crimes to draw cultural conclusions about criminal behaviors, values, and norms. They specifically look at: where crimes occur, what types of crimes occur, why those crimes happen, how frequently those crimes happen, the consequences of crime for offenders, the consequences of crime for victims, the consequences of crime for society as whole, and how the government responds to criminal behavior. For example, the American criminal justice system was established to ensure that criminal defendants had certain constitutional protections, but victim advocacy groups have lobbied to ensure that victims also have some rights in the criminal prosecution process. Victim impact statements are one way that victims are able to have an influence in the criminal justice process.
In contrast, criminal justice looks at the various systems in place that define, detect, and punish criminal behavior. Criminal justice is considered by many to be synonymous with law enforcement, but the criminal justice system actually encompasses more than just law enforcement. There are three major components in the criminal justice system: law enforcement, courts, and corrections. Each component plays a role in preventing and punishing behavior that is deemed illegal. A non-specified component of the criminal justice system is the legislature, which not only determines which behaviors are considered illegal, but also the consequences for those illegal behaviors, including the range of potential punishments for those who engage in those behaviors. Law enforcement officers, also known as police officers, serve three roles in the criminal justice system: crime prevention, crime detection, and identification and apprehension of criminals. The court systems, which consists of the courts themselves, as well as the prosecuting and defense attorneys, judges, and juries, determine whether the suspect is guilty, and sentence them to their punishments. The corrections system refers to any part of the post-sentencing process that is responsible for carrying out sentencing. Prisons, jails, halfway houses, prison guards, corrections officers, probation officers, and parole officers are all part of the corrections system.
Criminal Justice Trends
The trends of the past, present and future that outline the borders connecting the criminal justice system components and their links adjoining the society is, beyond doubt, an authentic relationship that the law and society have established. Criminal justice has been affected by various trends in the times gone by. This is because trends keep changing with the passage of time. Therefore, it is exceedingly important for the criminal justice system to try even harder if it wants to achieve success and go beyond such trends that give rise to innovative crimes. It is not easy for anyone to find out the connections linking the criminal justice system and trends of criminal activities as they are inconsistent. As a consequence, the criminal justice system is affected by the continuous changes in crime patterns and trends. However, in the contemporary world of today, the criminal justice system is trying…
Critical Criminal Justice Issues: Task Force Reports from the American Society of Criminology to Attorney General Janet Reno. (1994). NCJRS. Retrieved August 31, 2013, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/158837.pdf
Gruber, A. (2013, Spring). Leniency as a Miscarriage of Race and Gender Justice. Albany Law Review, 1, 1571+.
Marvell, T.B. (1995). Sentencing Guidelines and Prison Population Growth. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85(3), 696+. Retrieved August 31, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-17095416/sentencing-guidelines-and-prison-population-growth
Setting a Course for the Future of the Criminal Justice System in Virginia: Environmental Scan. (2008). DCJS. Retrieved August 31, 2013, from http://www.dcjs.virginia.gov/research/documents/08environmentalscan.pdf
Criminal justice system normally refers to the compilation of the prevailing federal; state accompanied by the local public agencies those pacts with the crime problem. These corresponding agencies procedure suspects, defendants accompanied by the convicted offenders and are normally mutually dependent insofar as the prevailing decisions of the single agency influence other supplementary agencies (Cole & Smith, 2009). The fundamental framework of the underlying system is normally granted through the lawmaking, judicial and the executive twigs of the government. The major significant advancements within the criminal justice system within the past decade has been the widespread execution of the corresponding initiatives designed that pertain to the diverting of the populace with mental sickness accompanied by the addictions away from the prevailing imprisonment and their treatments (David, 2008). The development of the existing jail distraction programs, mental health courts and drug courts has been promoted through the belief that these prevailing…
May, D.C. (2008). Corrections and the criminal justice system. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Pub.
Cole, George F., & Smith, Christopher. (2009). The American System of Criminal Justice.
Dantzker, M.L. (2009). Police organization and management: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
Criminal Justice Leadership Strategies and Practices
Leadership Strategies and Practice
Examples and Analysis of oles
The criminal justice leadership strategies are also partly similar to business practices followed in commercial organizations. However, the difference in chain of command, organizational culture and theories applicable for criminology are unique. The criminal justice organizations also develop strategies that are relevant for their organizational culture as well as with respect to the community relations. These organizations also establish a unique lesion with civilians as well as with other government and administrative functions of the state. The work below provides examples and information regarding the functioning of criminal justice organizations, their leadership and practices adopted to formulate strategies. The research also analyzes the roles of criminal justice leadership strategies with respect to the organizational culture, behavioral theory, planning, and community relations.
The department of criminal justice is not only limited to prosecution and policing but is…
Cole, G., Smith, C., & DeJong, C. (2012). The American system of criminal justice. USA: Cengage Learning.
Cronkhite, C.L. (2012). Law Enforcement and Justice Administration: Strategies for the 21st Century. USA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Hess, K., Orthmann, C.H., & Cho, H. (2014). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. USA: Cengage Learning.
Tatalovich, R., & Daynes, B.W. (2011). Moral Controversies in American Politics. USA: Me sharpe.
On September 18 at around 2:30 PM, the victim, a famous citizen in the community was assaulted and robbed of his wallet by the defendant on his way home. The victim was not only assaulted but he was also pushed against his car and threatened with a knife. The crime generated huge media attention because of the victim's popularity as calls for speedy arrest and conviction of the criminal gained momentum. As heavy pressure was place on the law enforcement officers to arrest the criminal, the defendant was apprehended several days later while carrying the wallet of the victim and knife and was subsequently identified in a lineup by the victim. During preliminary of the case, the defendant was pronounced indigent and offered with a public defender and even denied bail because of the nature of the crime. While he chose not to take to the stand, the defendant…
Carlsmith, K.M. & Darley, J.M. (2002). Why do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as
Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(2), 284-299. Retrieved from http://www.law.asu.edu/files/!NoTemplate/why%20do%20we%20punish%20-%20Robinson.pdf
"Double Jeopardy." (n.d.). Criminal Law. Retrieved June 12, 2012, from http://www.enotes.com/criminal-law-reference/double-jeopardy
Gaines, L.K. & Miller, R.L. (2008). Criminal Justice in Action (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson
Criminal Justice System: Ethics in Criminal Procedure
Ethics refers to the principles of morality that govern an individual's behavior. Ethics, therefore, provides the basis through which an individual defines, and distinguishes between the good and the bad. This implies that it is ethics that provides the framework for the duties and responsibilities an individual owes to himself, and to the community. Today, ethics define how corporations, professionals, and individuals relate with one another. Within the criminal justice system, ethics refers to the standards that govern the conduct of persons working within the criminal justice system (Kleinig, 2008). It defines the professionalism of prison guards, judges, attorneys, prosecutors, and police officers (Kleinig, 2008).
The Process of the Criminal Justice System
There are ten stages involved in the criminal justice system; initial contact, investigation, arrest, custody, indictment, detention/bail, plea bargaining, adjudication, disposition, and post convict remedies (the Legal Dictionary, 2014). Initial contact involves observation and…
Civil Rights. (2013). Justice on Trial. The Leadership Conference. Retrieved from http://www.civilrights.org/publications/justice-on-trial/
Kleinig, J. (2008). Ethics and Criminal Justice: An Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.
The Legal Dictionary. (2014). Ethics, Legal. The Legal Dictionary. Retrieved from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ethics,+Legal
Criminal justice system refers to either the state or federal set of agencies and processes which are created by governments to control crime and to engage in penalties and discipline on those who break the law and who hurt others or damage property. "There is no single criminal justice system in the United States but rather many similar, individual systems. How the criminal justice system works in each area depends on the jurisdiction that is in charge: city, county, state, federal or tribal government or military installation" (NCVC, 2012). Thus, what can make the criminal justice system so tricky and difficult to understand is largely because different jurisdictions have differing laws, agencies and methods of criminal justice management (NCVC, 2012). Thus, the state system is in charge of handling crimes which occur within the state boundaries; the federal system handles crimes which occur in multiple states or on federal property…
Ga.us. (n.d.). Benefits of Alternative Sanctions. Retrieved from Georgia State: http://www.dcor.state.ga.us/pdf/tcp21-25.pdf
NCVC. (2013). The Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from The National Center for Victims of Crime: http://www.victimsofcrime.org/help-for-crime-victims/get-help-bulletins-for-crime-victims/the-criminal-justice-system
Pdx.edu. (2013). Psychology plays a role in criminal justice. Retrieved from Pdx.edu: http://online.ccj.pdx.edu/resources/news-article/psychology-plays-a-role-in-criminal-justice/
Criminal justice system is comprised of elaborate pieces of a huge puzzle. The age of "Order," CSI, and various other TV programs has actually all however removed the genuine components of the puzzle that bring about the arrest of the suspect. Prior to being employed, one is enlightened on how this works; he ought to be warned of the jobs that everyone plays and at exactly what phase they are purchased into the scene. Everybody from the cop to the judge comes across the suspect at various phases and there are numerous things that occur to preserve the flow of the justice system.
eview of the Criminal Justice System
Law enforcement agent, Judges, Area Lawyer, and District attorneys all play their own component in the criminal justice system. They all have their own various communications with either the suspicious or criminal defendant. There are various things that have to occur prior to…
Israel, Jerold H.; Kamisar, Yale; LaFave, Wayne R. (2003). Criminal Procedure and the Constitution: Leading Supreme Court Cases and Introductory Text. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
John N. Ferdico, Henry F. Fradella, Christopher D. Totten. (2008). Criminal Procedure for the Criminal Justice Professional. Cengage Learning Publications.
Criminal Justice Administration
The criminal justice system involves practices and institutions directed by governments in place to ensure that social control is upheld, crime mitigation and deterring or going ahead to sanction those that are in violation of laws through criminal penalties and rehabilitating them.at the same time those who have been accused of any crime are protected against abuse of the powers to investigate or prosecute them. The paper will look at the key issues when it comes to criminal justice administration today.
The criminal justice system today consists of three main parts which are the legislative part, the adjudication part and the correction part. The legislation part has the duty of creating laws which have to be followed by every individual. Incase one does not follow these laws they might find themselves faced with charges against them. The adjudication comprises of courts which are the venues for settling disputes and…
Roufa, T.(2010). Criminal Justice. Retrieved August 30, 2013 from http://criminologycareers.about.com/od/Criminology_Basics/a/What-is-criminal-justice.htm
American society of criminology. (2012).Criminal justice issues. Retrieved August 30, 2013 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/158837.pdf
If the issue of pant sagging is not addressed, it will lead to public dissatisfaction, especially from people who have raised concerns. It will also continue the implications on black men as being disrespectful gangsters, or as Cosby says (middle class blacks who are disrespected and despised gangsters, whose egregious behavior is sagging pants). It will also continue the implication that the black represent some unified community which is monolithic so that discrimination to them (blacks) is de-racialized. Other implications are there as seen in the Basketball Association, where they sought to enforce the dress code, stating that hip hop dressing projected an image that tends to alienate middle class members in the audience. The economic implication about sagging pants is that it prevents the youth from getting jobs leading to the high number of unemployed youth especially the blacks.
Some take the ban as a racist move targeting African-Americans,…
Bawaba, a. (2011). Sagging Pants Sagging Minds. General Interest Periodical Africa.
Clatchy, M. (2008). Sagging Pants Bill Doesn't Hold Up. Business and Economics.
Cole, G.A. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Cengage.
Magwire, M.A. (2010). Critical Issues in Crime and Justice: Thought, Policy, Practice. London: SAGE.
Criminal Justice IT
It is becoming very clear how much of an impact the newest technological advances have on the world. For example, consider how quickly the information spread via the social media about Osama bin Laden's death. Technology innovations are also greatly impacting the criminal justice system in the U.S. By providing significant improvements in the way that agencies find, process, share and utilize information. With the present speed of change, many new information technology advances are still on their way for the 18,000 police departments and several thousand prosecutorial court and correction agencies in the U.S. (Pattavina, 2005). In the future, as the digital world continues to advance in complexity, the criminal justice system will continue to improve in overall effectiveness and capabilities in crime measurement, control and response.
Since the 1960s, criminal justice system agencies have been using information technology to gain a better understanding of the issues and…
Boba, R. (2005). Crime Analysis and Crime Mapping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
DNA Initiative (2011). Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.dna.gov/basics/
National Institute of Justice. Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://nij.gov/
Pattavina, A. (2005). Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
" (Weinstein, 2003) This range is dependent upon the charges that are brought against the defendant in the criminal case as well as "some aspects of the conduct underlying the charges." (Weinstein, 2003) Judges are legally required to "impose a specific sentence is subject to the exercise of discretion in two areas" which are those of:
1) the judge makes the determination that the sentence must be within the Guideline range; and 2) in cases which involve downward departures where the sentence imposed may be below the applicable guidelines range. (Weinstein, 2003)
Judges are naturally sought by the public for the purpose of influencing the outcomes in cases which they preside over. And public opinion must surely, at least to some extent, and depending upon the ethics within the specific community, exert some influence upon the opinions and rulings of a judge in some cases. Just as well, the Judge cannot but…
O'Malley, T. (nd) Sentencing Values and Sentencing Structures. Judicial Studies Institute Journal. Vol. 203 No. 201. Online available at http://www.jsijournal.ie/html/Volume%203%20No.%201/3%5B1%5D_O'Malley_Sentencing%20Values%20and%20Sentencing%20Structures.pdf.
Weinstein, I. (2003) Fifteen years after the federal sentencing revolution: how mandatory minimums have undermined effective and just narcotics sentencing..(Perspectives on the Federal Sentencing Guidelines and Mandatory Sentencing) 1 Jan 2003. American Criminal Law Review.
Criminal Justice Administration
Does the criminal justice system discriminate? Provide support your position with reference to the various components of the process, and give an explanation for either why the system discriminates, or why it appears to discriminate.
Yes, the criminal justice system discriminates. African-American males are overrepresented in every part of the criminal process, though there has been no good evidence to show that they actually engage in criminal behavior at rates that are so grossly disproportionate to the participation rates of the rest of society.
In fact, enough young adult African-American males are incarcerated that it impacts the African-American community by contributing to single parenthood, making it less likely that African-American women will find spouses, and perpetuating a cycle of violence and incarceration.
In addition to racial discrimination, women who kill their spouses receive sentences that are roughly four to five times as long as the sentences that men receive when they kill…
Criminal Justice: Challenges and Developments
The criminal justice system in the United States, and indeed anywhere in the world, is a governmental tool to ensure the safety and security of the citizens of the country. Certain areas have however been considered in research to steer away from this goal. The public has for example lost a considerable amount of trust in the system as a result of apparent oppressive practices in the system. Furthermore alcohol has been proved to be a problem in many crimes; yet many of the prisoners with drinking problems remain untreated, and crimes are perpetuated as a result. There are also however significant developments within the system, including IT advances, which could help to create an increase in job opportunities in a variety of departments.
Perceived Oppression in the Criminal Justice System
The United States prison system appears to be the icon of years of accumulated oppressive practices against…
Parenti, Christian. "The 'New' Criminal Justice System: State Repression from 1968 to 2001." In Monthly Review, July 2001. Society for the Advancement of Education, 2002. Online Article Database: www.findarticles.com.
Polcin, Douglas L. "Factors associated with probation officers' use of criminal justice coercion to mandate alcohol treatment." In American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, August 2003. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003. Online Article Database: www.findarticles.com.
Rogers, James. "Criminal justice modernisation will create hundreds of IT jobs." In Computer Weekly, August 1, 2002. Reed Business Information Limited, 2002. Online Article Database: www.findarticles.com.
Some things are fundamental to the history and progressive development of human society. The evolution of technology brings with it new challenges in the management of the security of the state. For this motive that law enforcement systems is set in the society to maintain and promote law and order (Law enforcement, 2002). Law enforcement systems act in organized manner, in the process of promoting adherence to the law of the country and identifying those who violate the laws and norms that govern the society. Law enforcement engages in the patrols and surveillance in dissuading and discovering criminal activities, investigating and apprehending the offenders. Law enforcement agencies and systems work in conjunction with judiciary services and correctional facilities, following the constitution of the land.
Parts of the Constitution of the United States most relevant to the ethical standards of law enforcement professionals
The United States law enforcement agencies -- that…
Prenzler, T. (2009). Police corruption: Preventing misconduct and maintaining integrity. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, Ill: Chares C. Thomas.
Law enforcement. (2002, Credit Management,, 22-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/228275987?accountid=35812
Rosen, M.D. (2004). Exporting the constitution. Emory Law Journal, 53(1), 171-232. Retrieved
This may mean an expansion of white-collar task forces designed to investigate such crimes.
Predictions are that terrorist will continue to commit heinous criminal acts against our citizens in the future. If this prediction comes true, what, if any, effects will this have on the corrections system. ill Criminal Justice Administrators need to rethink what "model" (more punitive or restorative model) of justice should be used if more and more terrorist are incarcerated in our prison system?
hy or why not?
If terrorism becomes the focus of the criminal justice and prison system, this means that more and more non-citizens are likely to be incarcerated in the future. The result of this is that the United States must develop a more clearly defined policy to handle suspected terrorists in a legal and ethical fashion, so as not to draw the anger of the international community, or of congress. A new set of…
Cilluffo, Frank J. (19 Sept 2006). "Prison radicalization: Are terrorist cells forming in U.S. cell blocks?" Testimony before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Retrieved 9 Jan 2007 at http://hsgac.senate.gov/_files/091906Cilluffo.pdf
Community corrections." (2008). Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved 9 Jan 2007 at http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp
The Juvenile Justice System." (2007). Law Info. Retrieved 9 Jan 2007 at http://www.lawinfo.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/Client.lawarea/categoryid/140
Understanding Community Policing." (1994, Aug). Bureau of Justice Assistance.
Issues of justice and fairness during the trial of offenders could also be found the area of timeliness under the criminal justice systems.
Discussion Two: Issues Arising from Other Issues
At Excelsior College, many areas of specialization have been dwelt on by different students. To be precise, for example, the college covers issues related to homeland security, criminal justices and justice systems and the enforcement of the law. One area that the students indulged in is the treatment of mentally ill offenders during pre-trial, trial and their time in prison. Basically, the area deals with the treatment of criminal offenders and the justice system procedures of trial. Basically, these issues of justice, fair treatment when serving time in prison, and timeliness during trial could also apply in other field of study. In the same way the mentally ill have dissimilar incentives to assist them recover while in custody, other criminals have…
Though the assets were seized without any promise or even expectation of individual officers gaining personal financial rewards, the ethical considerations of this problem are fairly obvious. It sets a dangerous precedent for future investigations involving large amounts of cash, expensive cars and homes, and other goods and property that is easily saleable at the completion of an investigation. The wide distribution of the money derived from the seized assets does something to alleviate the ethical problem that this situation clearly presents, but it does not solve the problem.
Journal 6: "RCPD say small percent of offenders produce large percent of crime," Riley County Kansas Channel 49 News
There is strong evidence that criminal offenders, especially those that commit certain types of crimes, have a high rate of recidivism. This article bears out that fact, and includes the rather controversial statement that "If you arrest the right people...the crime rate goes…
To have an appropriate policy outcome, an investigation is necessary to determine the basis of their relationship. This is necessary since both the attorney and the public will be in a position to justify if he shot his wife unknowingly.
On the third website there is a case concerning a murderous ex-cop who faces cases of murder and hopes to get another chance. In such a case, there has to be evidence on the charges laid against the ex-cop and they are applicable in the case to establish the significant policy outcome. In lack of concrete evidence then it is unnecessary to charge the ex-cop against a series of murder, which is a callous act. The jury has to get proper information and then establish the kind of justice that will prevail on the case.
The three above proposals are similar in a way that they entail an important part before…
Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd
Edition). Long Grove,
Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,
Powell, Michael. "Bragging of Safety While Many Live in Fear." New York Times. 22 pril, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/22/nyregion/bragging-of-safety-while-many-live-in-fear.html
In this article, Michael Powell claims that in spite of New York City's stellar record of crime reduction there remain "sad and bloody corners" of the city, especially in the outer boroughs. In some areas, and especially in low-income housing projects, crime has actually increased. nother problem that Powell addresses in this article is the issue of stop and frisk as a police tactic. This tactic is abused, and is clearly racist in its application. s a result, the administration of Mayor De Blasio confronts several civil rights lawsuits. Powell touches upon a central issue in criminal justice: the need to balance patrols and prevention with an overbearing police presence. Some residents appreciate the strong police presence because it may make their housing developments safer. Yet others feel like they are…
Although we are not discussing international crime, I wanted to write about this article in a more general sense to show how rates of crime shift in response to changing demographics. This article could apply equally as well to an American city that is rapidly growing and changing. The article focuses on the sudden increasing in crimes in Malaysia, with an emphasis on the capital Kuala Lumpur. The city has always been known to be safe but recently has had a rise in crime, especially thefts and burglaries. Class conflict and strain theory are used to explain the issue, but there are clearly other issues at stake given the simultaneous rise in crimes that are violent too, such as rape and homicide.
Kelly, Heather. "Hyperlocal apps help residents fight crime." CNN Tech. 14 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/14/tech/social-media/neighborhood-watch-apps-nextdoor/
In this article, the author discusses the use of technology to empower residents of a community in Arizona. This article shows that community residents can use a simple app on their smartphone, which they are already using, to monitor their neighborhood. It is an app that can easily transfer to other cities. The reason why I selected this article for discussion is that I believe in community policing as a viable model. Applications like this help residents feel responsible for the safety of their community, more responsive to threats, and more willing to take action. This will lead to increased citizen watch patterns, and cooperation with police. As long as this does not lead to the "stand your ground" type approach, applications like this will help make communities safer and can be applied to urban, suburban, and even rural regions.
A variety of methods and designs can be used in criminal justice research. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are valid approaches to the sociological questions researchers will have when faced with presenting problems and issues. Ideally, criminal justice research should remain relevant, grounded in theory, and applicable to public policy or practice. Criminal justice policies and procedures can and should be evidence-based. Scientific research helps to identify which interventions or policies work, and which do not, based on quantitative data or on phenomenological factors like public opinion. The two main branches of social science research include qualitative and quantitative designs. Qualitative research is not necessarily inferior to quantitative research in the social sciences because measurable outcomes cannot account for all aspects of the human experience. Therefore, researchers will often use qualitative methods like in-depth interviews, case studies, and focus groups in order to gather information, ask open-ended questions, and ascertain variables…
Research and Policy Development Paper
Irrespective of how advanced the devices and systems used in receiving and sending information are, much success would not be achieved in crime reduction until important information and facts about crime is accessible and worked on by policymakers (Andrews & Bonta, 2010). The idea of research, with emphasis laid on the discoveries made from criminal justice investigation, being actively utilized by policymakers forms the subject matter which this paper studies.
Identify the purposes and types of policies within the field of criminal justice
i. Count Policies
An important function of a corrections officer is the knowledge of the location of all offenders and where each one should be at a particular moment in time. All organizations have a different style and number of counts, nonetheless, the role the counts play remain straightforward and it is; to have the knowledge of the exact number of offenders existing under the agency’s…
Leadership in Criminal JusticePart 1Competence and Skill in Criminal Justice LeadershipThere are a wide range of inefficiencies that have been identified and explored in the criminal justice realm. Similarly, entire studies have been conducted in an attempt to establish the source of the said inefficiencies. It would be prudent to assess the role that leadership plays in the optimal operation of criminal justice organizations.It is important to note that in the past various strategies have been deployed in an attempt to ensure that those who occupy leadership positions across the entire criminal justice system have a set of skills and capabilities needed to effectively execute their roles and offer direction to staff and other stakeholders. This is particularly the case in the U.S. and the U.K. where, as Hoggett, Redford, Toher, and White (2019) point out, conversations about the professionalization of policing have resulted in the implementation of policies meant…
Bernstein, J. (2011). Manager\\\\\\'s Guide to Crisis Management. McGraw Hill Professional.
Black, J.S., Bright, D.S. & Gardner, D.G. (2019). Organizational Behavior. 12th Media Services.
Cunha, M.P., Rego, A. & Simpson, A. (2020). Positive Organizational Behavior: A Reflective Approach. Routledge.
The Importance of Appropriate Evaluation Models Criminal justice policy and program evaluation is not a monolithic or standardized process. In other words there is no one size fits all approach to policy evaluation and assessment. Evaluation of policies designed to reduce domestic violence will be sharply different from those used to reduce rates of recidivism among juveniles. Therefore, when recommending a policy evaluation model, analysts should take into account situational variables, and especially the methods used to design and implement the applicable criminal justice policy. The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA, n.d.) describes evaluation in general as “a systematic, objective process for determining the success of a policy or program,” in order to determine whether that policy or program is achieving the goals it set out to achieve, or whether the program or policy has proven to be cost-effective (p. 1). In order to perform any type of policy evaluation, analysts…
Psychologists serve in various roles within the criminal justice system, as well as at every level of the criminal justice system from law enforcement to corrections. Some of the most common categories of criminal justice psychologist include as applied scientist, basic scientist, policy evaluator, and advocate. Each of these roles can be fulfilled at the levels of law enforcement, corrections, and also within the courts system.
Licensed psychologists can work as applied scientists: translating empirical evidence into informed practice at the levels of law enforcement, corrections, or any level of procedural justice. For example, expert witnesses are essentially applied scientists because they directly apply what they know about psychiatric disorders and the behaviors of individuals with these disorders towards helping a judge and jury make educated, informed decisions through witness testimony or consultation. Offering their expertise to law enforcement, an applied scientist would also be able to offer assistance with…
Criminal Justice Code of EthicsThe code of ethics provided by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences has stipulations on the ethical standards and the general principles underlying the professional conduct, responsibility, and behavior of the organizations members, coupled with the procedures and policies that guide the enforcement of the same. This is very crucial to criminal justice and law enforcement. It is particularly essential when conducting any form of research concerning criminal activities and the criminal justice processes (Martinson et al., 2010). Ultimately, ethical research plays a crucial role in providing the correct information and data that the criminal justice system can utilize to solve societal problems and improve the system. As such, adherence to the ethical standards in conducting research is essential, as discussed below.The Meaning of Research Standards- Members of the Academy as ResearchersMembers of the academy should adhere to a high level of technical standards in research.…
Bille, T., & Steenfeldt, V. O. (2013). Challenging fieldwork situations: A study of researcher’s subjectivity. Journal of Research Practice, 9(1), M2-M2.
Cho, J., & Trent, A. (2006). Validity in qualitative research revisited. Qualitative research, 6(3), 319-340.
Martinson, B. C., Crain, A. L., De Vries, R., & Anderson, M. S. (2010). The importance of organizational justice in ensuring research integrity. Journal of empirical research on human research ethics, 5(3), 67-83.
Defining the ProblemCybersecurity has become a top concern in criminal justice policy at the local, state, and federal levels. Coordination between different law enforcement agencies is required to effectively detect and responds to threats. The proposed H.R. 3490 is a bill that would establish a National Computer Forensics Institute within the Department of Homeland Security. The proposed National Computer Forensics Institute would be primarily responsible for training local and state law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and judges, in the interest of creating more robust information sharing and more competent responses to cyberthreats.MayBiblical GuidelinesThe Bible does not mention cybersecurity of course, but the Bible does show how ultimately matters of security rest with God. The story of Job is especially instructive because it shows how even in ones darkest hour, peace and security are found in faith: You will be secure, because there is hope;you will look about you and take your…
Fischer, K. (2013). Biblical principles of government.
“H.R. 3490, Strengthening State and Local Cyber Crime Fighting Act,” (2015). Congressional Budget Office. https://www.cbo.gov/publication/50912
Civil versus Criminal Liability
Criminal justice practitioners do have a civil liability that puts them at risk of being sued by the public. The purpose of civil liability is to encourage accountability and responsible in the field of criminal justice. For that reason, “local governments can now be held liable for the conduct of police officers and jail personnel. In addition, sheriffs, police chiefs, and mid- level supervisors can be held personally liable for the conduct of their subordinates” (Barrineau, 1987, p. 35). Criminal justice agencies can also be held criminally liable for their actions if their behaviors break the law. This paper will examine the difference between criminal and civil liability and show how each relates to criminal justice agencies and practitioners.
The Principles of Criminal Law
The rule of law principle is what binds all to the laws passed by government in the U.S. In order for a person or agency…
Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have the potential to yield reliable, valid, and important information that can be used to inform public policy. Criminal justice researchers use a wide range of research methods, which vary depending on the research questions, the purpose of the study (applied versus pure research) and the overall paradigm and theoretical framework. Research can be used to validate or disprove an existing theory, alter or enhance an existing theory, generate a new theory based on phenomenology, or evaluate the effectiveness of a policy, program, or intervention (“Criminology Research Methods,” n.d.). Qualitative research methods are best used when the researchers are interested in participants’ perceptions, or seek open-ended answers to questions. Quantitative research methods are best used when the researchers want hard data in numerical form, which can be used to generate statistical analyses. Mixed-methods approaches can be tremendously helpful for criminal justice and social science…
Barnes, G.C., Hyatt, J.M. & Angel, C.M. (2013). Are Restorative Justice Conferences More Fair Than Criminal Courts? Comparing Levels of Observed Procedural Justice in the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Criminal Justice Policy Review 26(2): 103-130.
Criminal Justice Organizations
The entire criminal justice system is made up of numerous organizations which are inherently independent. Some of the criminal justice organizations in various counties include, but they are not limited to, Juvenile Justice Department, Reentry and Integration Department, Probation Department, etc. Although independent, these criminal justice organizations cannot operate in isolation. This is more so the case given the complex and multifaceted nature of the criminal justice system.
County-wide criminal justice organization: Riverside County Probation Department
The County Probation Department, which I manage as the Chief Probation Officer, has three core missions; serving courts, protecting the community, and changing lives (Riverside County, 2018). In seeking to fulfill its mission, the department interacts with various other agencies within the system. These include, but they are not limited to, Riverside County Sheriff, the Law Offices of the County Public Defender, and the Office of the District Attorney. While these are, in essence,…
Criminal Justice: Logic ModelIt is mandatory to keep funding the communities that have the potential of providing economic contribution. Grant funding is a way of acknowledging those communities efforts and praising them for their endeavors to make citizens lives better. The following paper aims at developing a grant funding proposal for a crime prevention program targeted towards businesses of a specific community. Particular areas of the proposal will be discussed in subsequent sections of the paper for clarifying the requirements and teamwork strategies vital for the proposal.Common Grant TypesFour major categories of grant funding commonly include competitive, formula, continuation, and pass-through funding (eCivis, 2020).in the first type of funding, the recipients are not pre-determined as a team of reviewers check who would be the best eligible ones. In the second type, the fund obtainers are pre-determined for accurate allocations to the eligible ones so that minimum requirements can be known…
Adam Smith. (n.a.). Types of grants available. https://adamsmith.house.gov/types-of-grants-available
Barnard, M. (2015, April 9). Logic models 101. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation. https://research.olemiss.edu/sites/default/files/LOGIC-MODELS101-for-ORSP-Sp2015.pdf
Bennett, T., Holloway, K. & Farrington, D. (2008). The effectiveness of neighborhood watch. Campbell Systematic Review, 4(1), 1-46. https://doi.org/10.4073/csr.2008.18
Criminal Justice: Sentencing a DefendantThe conviction of child sex offenders for each state and region is different since this is considered a debate upon what type of intentions and urges were involved when the crime was committed. The law has to look into the matter with serious comprehension so that the guilty are punished fairly, and the victims are served their justice. This paper aims to highlight a scenario where a person fondled a child and has some history of misdoings and his convictions.With the details provided about Mario Gonzalez, 34 years old, who fondled a child improperly, it should be noted that he is subjected to punishment under section 3b of Justia Law US. He has violated the Constitutional statement by fondling or touching the child under 14 years of age, which could be under the effect of a drug (Justia US Law, n.a.).The man admitted that he was…
Burkitt, B. (2017, September 26). Gehrich gets jail in time, probation for fondling 3 Cedar City children in their home. The Spectrum. https://www.thespectrum.com/story/news/local/cedar-city/2017/09/26/gehrich-gets-jail-time-probation-fondling-3-cedar-city-children-their-own-home/706257001/
Justia US Law. (n.a.). 2017 Indianan code title 35. Criminal law and procedure Article 42. Offenses against the Person Chapter 4. Sex crimes 35-42-4-3. Child molesting. https://law.justia.com/codes/indiana/2017/title-35/article-42/chapter-4/section-35-42-4-3/
Patrick, S. & Marsh, R. (2011). Sentencing outcomes of convicted child sex offenders. Journal of Child Sex Abuse, 20(1), 94-108. https://doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2011.541356
Criminal Justice: Crime Rate ComparisonCrime rates in the United States (US) have been rising. Certain rates for certain crimes are available for the previous years. The recent data has also corroborated the same trend (Disaster Center, n.a.); however, particular crimes for which the increase or decrease are still not clear. The purpose of this paper is to compare the crime rates of two selected states of the US, Nevada, and Arizona, specifically for aggravated assault, so that trends over the years and future prospected outcomes could be compared easily.Prevalence of the Crimes ExaminedFor Nevada, Boulder City Police Department is selected for taking a clear view of the aggravated assault in the county. In contrast, for Arizona, Apache County Sheriff was selected for the same objective. The latest data available on both these pages were for the year 2005, in which Nevada had 14 aggravated assault crimes while Arizona had 12…
Canfield, M.D. (2004). Bureau of alcohol and drug abuse 2004 annual report. State Health Division Department of Human Resources. https://www.leg.state.nv.us/73rd/interim/statcom/healthcareTreat/BADA/2004AnnualRpt.pdf
Disaster Center. (n.a.). The Disaster Center crime pages. https://www.disastercenter.com/crime/
Hakansson, A. & Jesionowska, V. (2018). Associations between substance use and type of crime in prisoners with substance use problems- A focus on violence and fatal violence. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 9, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.2147/SAR.S143251
Lammers, S.M.M., Soe-Agnie, S.E., Haan, H.A., Bakkum, G.A.M., Pomp, E.R. & Nijman, H.J.M. (2014). Substance use and criminality: A review. Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie, 56(1), 32-39.
Today, social science researchers have a wide range of research methods available for criminology and criminal justice applications, divided generally between quantitative and qualitative methods. Although quantitative and qualitative research methods share some commonalities with respect to their overarching objectives, there are some fundamental differences involved that must be taken into account when selecting an optimal research strategy for a given research enterprise. The purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of quantitative and qualitative research methods applied to criminology and criminal justice settings, including a discussion concerning the similarities and differences involved in these two research paradigms. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning research methods for criminology and criminal justice studies are provided in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Many of the same types of quantitative research methodologies that are used for other social science studies are also appropriate for criminology and criminal…
Without any set moral guidelines and stipulations, a country’s criminal justice system is not capable of accurately meeting the needs of its people. The role of the system is to penalize poor conduct and make sure that victims of crime are well compensated for any of their losses (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2017; Souryal & Whitehead, 2019). Ethics are valuable in such systems because they offer both the victim and the accused fair justice application (Kramer, 2018). In this essay, the significance of ethics within the criminal justice system is discussed. Also, instances of unethical behavior, as well as the legal responsibilities suffered by the doers of such action, are presented.
Importance of ethics within the criminal justice
Ethics offers answers to several questions within the system. What is considered bad behavior or conduct? What is the most suitable compensation for victims of crime, and what is the befitting punishment for lawbreakers?…
Mental Health Support for Inmates in For Profit Prisons
The thesis of this project is: The prison industry needs to do a better job of addressing the mental health needs of prisoners.
What makes this an issue is that, as Morgan et al. (2013) and Semenza and Grosholz (2019) show, the criminal justice system is not doing enough to treat the mental health issues of inmates. Instead of focusing on the mental health aspects of crime, the system instead focuses on punitive justice. This is partly because of a conflict of interest at the heart of the criminal justice system, which is the fact that a private prison industry profits off the imprisonment of convicts. The labor of these convicts is outsourced to competing companies, which pay pennies on the dollar to inmates who have no choice but to work for them while incarcerated (Pelaez, 2014). There is no incentive on the…
One of the specific issues the Women’s Prison Association (WPA) addresses is how incarceration affects mothers, and how the criminal justice system can better address the needs of pregnant women, mothers, and children. One report published by the WPA summarizes a 2008 data set compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The document, “Incarcerated Mothers and Their Children: Highlights from the New Federal Report” reveals three main facts. The first is that more mothers than ever before are being imprisoned in the United States, invariably impacting greater numbers of children than ever before. Second, the majority (77%) of mothers provide all or almost all of their children’s daily care needs and/or live in a single-parenting household. Third, children with incarcerated mothers live with their grandparents or a foster family many times more often than children of incarcerated fathers. The results show that incarceration has a net deleterious effect on society…
Epistemology and Duty Ethics in Criminal Justice
1 Ethics in Law Enforcement Agencies
As Roufa (2019) notes, ethics in law enforcement are essential to prevent behaviors from going unchecked and bad reputations from being developed. Ethics in law enforcement agencies can provide guidelines, identify values that should be promoted, and dictate what sort of actions, behaviors and attitudes law enforcement agents should demonstrate. The Law Enforcement Oath of Office focuses on protecting, upholding and defending the Constitution of the US. It also contains terms regarding how officers should conduct themselves: soberly, honorably and honestly.
Law enforcement agencies tend to codify the ethics they want their officers to follower. The reason for this is that they want their officers to engage in ethical decision making, which means making the right decision morally. Sometimes officers can have an unconscious or implicit bias and this can affect their decision making (Hehman, Flake & Calanchini, 2018).…
Budget Proposal Strategy in California Criminal Justice AgencyBudgeting is one of the essential professional skills that help plan the future. Knowing the strategies required in budgeting is an advantage since it can help an organization manage its finances and improve on financing skills. This can help in future opportunities of work, in the maintenance of a reasonable budget, tips of budget strategies are essential. In short, a budget strategy is an approach that is, in most cases, formal and helps in managing particular fund collection. Other uses of budgeting strategies are to assist in reaching financial goals; this ensures that the accounting departments can pay for the expenses and invest in future opportunities. There are several budgeting strategies, and it depends on the goals to be achieved for choosing a specific budget strategy.Additionally, the process of creating long-range budgets within one year is referred to as strategic budgeting. The intention…
Patri, S. (2021). Juvenile Justice Realignment: A policy analysis of California Senate Bill823. https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/etd_projects/1037/
Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., & Klofas, J. (2014). Criminal justice organizations: Administration and management. Cengage learning. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=poTAAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR3&dq=budget+proposal+and+strategies+in+criminal+justice&ots=pJARicIBRh&sig=kkyuwzlNR6c3CrNcqpPI5oOw9_A
Prison Industrial Complex and the Private Prison System
Legal paternalism is the idea that the state can coerce individuals into doing something for their own good, whether it is preventing them from engaging in self-harm by holding them in a mental health facility against their will, or obliging an entire nation of free-thinking adults to wear surgical masks so that everyone feels safe from a flu virus. As Feinberg (1971) notes, legal paternalism robs the individual of the ability to think for himself and can cause them to “lose the power of rational judgment and decision” (p. 105). By treating people like children, the state turns adults into children. This is a backwards approach to governance. Even children, as Feinberg (1971) points out, are not treated as children after a certain period because society expects them to grow up. Yet grown-ups are expected to give up their rights and be treated…
Budget Proposal in California Criminal Justice AgencyA budget proposal is a formal document essentially detailed and research-supported for a given operating period. It provides the financial budget plan and displays information on the project expenses and a digital signature. It provides information to investors and grant providers on the amount of money a project is expected to cost. This description gives a clear view of all expenditures involved; hence, the budget proposal is defined as a description of the project in numbers. A budget proposal in the criminal justice agency in California was of importance. According to Governor Gavin Newsom, the budget proposal was due to electronic filling; records were to be digitalized and updated of management software cases in 2020-2021. During the covid 19 pandemic, courts moved proceedings online, leading to remote technology and cybersecurity taking center stage. This led to a proposal of $33.2 million being devoted. Newsom…
Ridolfi, L., Menart, R., & Villa, I. (2020). California Youth Face Heightened Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Division of Juvenile Justice: DJJ Realignment Requires State Oversight and Safeguards for Youth of Color. Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.
Washburn, M. (2020). State Spending Soars to Historic Levels Amid Reorganization of California’s Youth Correctional System. Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.
Compare and Contrast the Current Dominant Approaches to Crime Prevention
Given the diverse definitions of crime prevention, Schneider looks at it from the consequences approach. He defines it as a program or strategy that serves the purpose of preventing the occurrence of criminal acts or behaviors from emerging (2014). The outcome of such a definition has seen crime prevention defined as a “reduction in or prevention of specific criminal events” (Schneider, 2014, p. 6). Moreover, it is defined regarding reduction in the number of criminal offenders showing that the harm has been either reduced or prevented. Furthermore, the definition looks at the strategy as having reduced the number of harmed victims. Moreover, prevention is the fourth pillar and other institutions like courts, police, and corrections fall in that category. Crime prevention has dominant approaches used by law enforcement, courts, corrections, family, or community, which are all components of the criminal justice…
The significance of ethical leadership in criminal justice and correctional organisations cannot be overemphasised. These organisations must put in place and enforce policies to ensure officers constantly act in accordance with the law and the expected ethical standards (National Institute of Corrections, 2014). Based on the Clinton Correctional Facility scenario, this paper provides a plan for implementing employment laws and policy to enhance ethical leadership at the organisation. In the scenario, correctional staff engaged in personal relationships with two felony inmates who subsequently escaped (De Avila, 2015). Such relationships have the potential to undermine the work of criminal justice and correctional relationships, underscoring the importance of ethical leadership. The plan specifically highlights the employment and policy issues in the scenario and their associated consequences, and recommends necessary steps to address the issues.
Legally and ethically, correctional officers are not allowed to have intimate relationships with inmates. Nevertheless, staff-inmate personal relationships…
Lawyer Misconduct and the Sixth Amendment Rights of the Accused
The responsibility of the law in preventing harm to oneself and upholding social morals varies from state to state. For example, in parts of Nevada, prostitution is legal; in other parts, it is not. The same goes for drug use. In some states, like Colorado, marijuana use has been legalized. In other states, it is still illegal and even under federal law it is illegal. Thus, in a democracy, the people are ultimately the ones to determine what their laws will be. However, there are definitely organizations that lobby for certain laws to be passed. For instance, prior to Prohibition, there were organizations that lobbied to have alcohol banned and eventually their voices were heard at the federal level.
The responsibility of the law in preventing harm to oneself is ultimately a controversial one in a liberty-loving society. People believe they should…
Criminological perspectives explain why people commit crime and why some people are more predisposed to engage in criminal activity than others. The trait, social, and classical/choice perspectives are among the most common criminological perspectives. This text describes the core arguments of these three perspectives and how they dictate the sentencing model used at trial.
The Trait Perspective
The trait perspective argues that an individual’s predisposition to commit crime is influenced by their biological or genetic makeup (Siegel, 2015). According to the trait perspective, humans are born-criminals. However, individuals have certain traits such as blood chemistry disorders, neurological problems, defective intelligence or psychological disorders that determine whether or not they engage in crime when under duress or pushed in a certain direction. Traditional trait theorists believe that these biological and psychological attributes explain all criminality (Siegel, 2015). Contemporary theorists, however, believe that environmental factors such as disorganized neighborhoods, socioeconomic status, and family…
How is the study of crime different from the ways crime is portrayed in movies, literature, and television?The issues of crime are portrayed differently in movies, literature and television as compared to the real world. The primary different lies in incentives. Criminals often have a real-world incentive of survival. They commit crimes often as a means of earning money or funds to help pay for a specific product or service. A large cause of this is related to a lack of skills development and training. As many criminals lack to skills needed for high paying jobs, they instead elect to use crime as a means to earn a living. This ultimately results in high incarcerations rates and broken families with minority communities. These issues are exacerbated by legislation such as the war on crime which imprisoned a large number of African Americans and Hispanic Americans for very long sentences. These…
1. Ferni, Enrico. Criminal Sociology. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 2000. Pp. xiii, 284.
The Need for Criminal Justice Reform and Bail Reform When it comes to incarceration, the U.S. has the worst record in the world: the U.S. is only 4.4% of the world’s population, but it makes up 22% of the entire planet’s prison population. 716 people for every 100,000 in the U.S. will be incarcerated; moreover, 70% of those in prison will be there simply because they cannot afford to pay for bail (ACLU, 2019). Since most people live paycheck to paycheck in the U.S. it is not surprising to find that anyone accused of a crime is unlikely to be able to post the average cost of bail, which in the U.S. is $11,000 (ACLU, 2019). For these reasons, there is a need to establish both criminal justice reform and bail reform in the U.S. The American Gulag is like that of the Soviet Gulag: people lose their entire lives once…
Restorative justice asks fundamentally different questions, and is based on a different set of assumptions, than the current criminal justice paradigm (Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth, n.d.). The most notable and important difference between the current criminal justice paradigm and the restorative justice paradigm is that restorative justice does not focus on the punishment and does not advocate a punitive criminal justice system. Instead, the restorative justice model is based on several different points of views including how to repair harm. Restorative justice is solution-focused and also victim-centric in its approach to criminal justice. The National Institute of Justice (2007) describes restorative justice as being “grounded in community involvement,” which places a considerable degree of responsibility upon the members of the community in addition to the victims. As the Insight Prison Project (2017) puts it, restorative justice is “a philosophy and a social movement which provides an entirely different way…
Crawford, A. & Newburn, T. (2011). Youth Offending and Restorative Justice. New York: Routledge.
Understanding why individuals or groups engage in deviant or criminal behavior helps better inform therapeutic interventions and public policy. No one theory of crime can explain all criminal behavior. However, each theory does offer the potential for better understanding individual criminal acts or patterns of criminal behavior that take place within specific cultural or historical contexts. Integrating multiple theories can be helpful, too, showing how biology, psychology, politics, culture, and sociology intersect.
Biological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Some of the earliest theories of criminal behavior evolved out of biological determinism and evolutionary theory, which suggested that some people have a genetic predisposition towards criminality. Biological theories of criminal behavior can be based on different perspectives, including those that focus on neurochemistry, genetic conditions, developmental disorders, and even nutritional deficiencies (The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research, 2016). Although the original biological theories of crime like those of Lombroso have been widely…
From my knowledge in taking this course thus far as well as with my knowledge of being certified as a police officer, my position for how Dripps model would work is that it would not work. From reviewing and researching his model, I believe his model is very anti-police and seems to take the stance that all police departments and judicial systems have some type of buddy system that embraces corruption in criminal justice. That is something that I completely disagree with. In his article it states that, “The judge is not offering to cancel the suppression order if the police department mows the judge's lawn or provides free security at rock concerts. The judge is offering to rescind one, purely deterrent, remedy if and only if the government submits to another remedy that deters equally and compensates better” (Dripps, 2001). This to me is incredibly offensive that one would…
Restorative Justice: How Just is the Philosophy?
The principle of restorative justice was first created as an alternative to the two dominant philosophies of corrections: retribution and rehabilitation. The retributive view of corrections suggests that the purpose of corrections is to punish the offender. The rehabilitative view suggests that the purpose of corrections is to change the character of the offender for the better and prevent future crimes from taking place. Both neglect the needs of the victim, however, which is how the principle of restorative justice arose. According to the Centre for Justice and Reconciliation’s definition of “What is Restorative Justice” (2018), the philosophy: “emphasizes accountability, making amends, and — if they are interested — facilitated meetings between victims, offenders, and other persons.”
For some crimes, the principles of restorative justice would seem to be highly appropriate. A good example of this is vandalism, in which perpetrators are required to clean…
Drugs: A Big Problem in Criminal Justice The problem of drug use in America is one that has been around for many years. However, with the recent passage of marijuana laws in states like Colorado, Oregon and California (to name just a few), the way the nation views drug use has shifted. Recreational marijuana use has become accepted in Colorado, where it is legal to buy and sell a substance that is still considered a schedule 1 narcotic by the federal government. In fact, in states like Colorado, there is a clear conflict between the state laws and the federal laws: the states says cannabis is legal, while the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) says it is still prohibited. Researchers would like to research the drug to better understand its medicinal qualities, but they are afraid of violating federal law, so do not. Thus, the problem of drugs and how to perceive…
There are many behaviors that can influence change in criminal justice organizations. Social behavior influences change because the social systems that exist within an organization can help to disseminate change, or build resistance to it (Qian, 2007). Organizational change requires buy-in from the people that comprise the organization, so social behaviors such as the formation of social groups, gossip and other social communication and behavioral norms will all play a role in how quickly buy-in to the change occurs.
Political behaviors also matter, not just in terms of how the leaders leverage the formal political systems within the organization, but how informal systems are leveraged as well. Within any organization, there are key influencers, and they are not always in positions of formal power. The ability of management to leverage both these influencers and the formal political systems to disseminate a change program will have an influence on the success…
Forensic science evolved as an attempt to introduce scientific methods into criminal justice. From the 18th century onward, advancements in chemistry, biology, and physics paved the way for forensic science (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Likewise, the routine use of autopsy and forensic pathology helped improve the ability to understand the causes of death (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Forensic science steadily evolved, in conjunctions with advancements in scientific instruments and the methods used for data collection and analysis. DNA evidence and analysis has made a huge impact on forensic science. Current concerns in forensic science include the need for increased reliability and validity of forensic science methods, as well as public perceptions of forensic science. Because perceptions of forensic science could have a direct impact on juror decisions, distinguishing real from junk science becomes one of the most important issues in criminal justice.
Scientific Methods in Forensic Science
Forensic scientific methods are varied…
The 2012 Ken Burns documentary entitled The Central Park Five offers disturbing insight into institutionalized racism and the criminal justice system. Co-produced by Sarah Burns and David McMahon, The Central Park Five is about five children of color—teenagers—who were wrongfully convicted of multiple charges including sexual assault. In addition to illuminating the way the media can feed into racial stereotypes about criminality, the documentary also shows how law enforcement uses unethical tactics of interrogation to secure a conviction at all costs. Pressures to arrest and convict are shared among all members of the law enforcement team, even though individual officers will claim that they were following orders. Therefore, The Central Park Five is also instructive for the way it shows how police organizational culture needs to change. The practices and tactics used by New York police undermine the constitutional rights of citizens to due process. Essentially, the five teenagers referred to…
Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections
The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era, the Era of Reconstruction and the Progressive Era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s state correctional system was the first to introduce solitary confinement as a way of removing the deviant element from society. This was part of William Penn’s attempt at social reform, a fundamental characteristic of his Quaker ideals (Fantel, 1974). The goal of Penn’s plan was to promote moral rehabilitation and it was believed that through the inmate’s lengthy time alone to reflect on his misdeeds he would begin to develop the moral resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is a controversial…
Pros and Cons: Juvenile Justice
There are pros and cons to indeterminate sentencing. As Portman (2018) points out, prison officials like the idea of indeterminate sentencing because they feel it provides prisoners with an incentive to behave, show progress towards reform, and serve time quietly with the hope of getting an early release from the parole board. While this may be true, it also places a great deal of power into the hands of the parole board, the members of which essentially determine the fate of the incarcerated every time the individual is up for review. If the board holds any sort of prejudice or if the individual has few supporters on the outside to intervene on his behalf before the board, it could mean that there is less chance of early parole. For these reasons, it is important to weigh the pros and cons of indeterminate sentencing, especially when it…
The High Incarceration Rate: A Significant Issue Faced by the Criminal Justice System
This paper examines the problem of the high rate of incarceration in America. This is a major challenge for the criminal justice system, as many people, families and communities suffer as a result of this high rate. It prevents individuals from improving their lives and can lead to the deterioration of families and neighborhoods. The paper discusses some of the policies that have been put in place in recent years to address this issue. It also discusses alternative solutions and how the rate could be brought down by way of decriminalization of drug use and the implementation of diversion programs or restorative justice programs.
The problem of the high incarceration rate is one that affects more than prisoners and the prison population. It affects communities as well as the economics and politics of the nation. America has the highest…
Forensic pathology is a field in criminology and medical jurisprudence that focuses on the study of a corpse to determine evidence that can be used in criminal justice or to determine the cause of death. The post mortem conducted by a forensic pathologist serves as the source of information for the autopsy report that is generated at the conclusion of the investigation. Having trained previously in anatomical pathology, the forensic pathologist will be able to determine the cause of death by examining the body and determining the process by which the person died. This paper will discuss forensic pathology in detail and show how it is of use in criminal justice.
Meaning of the Terms
The history of forensic pathology is rooted in the terminology: as Choo and Choi (2012) point out, “forensic” comes from the Latin term “forum,” which means “public.” Pathology is Greek in its origins and refers to…
This paper discusses the history of DNA analysis, how it came about, how it was first used in a criminal case, and some of the limitations of DNA analysis as shown by later criminal cases. It looks at how DNA analysis is currently used today, including a recent criminal investigation in Europe in which DNA analysis played a crucial role, and provides a description of the various directions that DNA analysis could be taken in the future in the field of forensics. The paper concludes with a summation of the main points of the paper.
Keywords: dna analysis, dna profiling, dna forensics, dna criminal justice history
DNA analysis, also known as DNA fingerprinting in the beginning, came about in the latter half of the 20th century through breakthroughs in scientific investigation. It has been used in forensics ever since and is defined as “comparison of the DNA in a person’s nucleated…
As Clark (2017) points out, solitary confinement is typically a disciplinary, administrative or personal measure employed to punish, control or protect the individual who is isolated from others. However, the practice can have lasting and devastating effects on the psychology and health of individuals who thus confined—especially for juveniles. The reason for this damaging effect is that human beings are essentially social creatures and need sociality in order to feel whole. Exceptions to this rule have existed through history by primarily because one individual or another chose to live in solitude and was not confined against his will. Confinement against one’s will can be damaging and debilitating and numerous examples of this exist, especially in cases where the individual is left in confinement for a long period of time: the case of Stephen Slevin, who was arrested for drunk driving and possession of a stolen vehicle—but never charged—was placed…
Criminal Justice Trends The trends of the past, present and future that outline the borders connecting the criminal justice system components and their links adjoining the society is, beyond doubt,…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal justice system normally refers to the compilation of the prevailing federal; state accompanied by the local public agencies those pacts with the crime problem. These corresponding agencies procedure…Read Full Paper ❯
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Criminal Justice IT It is becoming very clear how much of an impact the newest technological advances have on the world. For example, consider how quickly the information spread via…Read Full Paper ❯
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Does the criminal justice system discriminate? Provide support your position with reference to the various components of the process, and give an explanation for either why the system…Read Full Paper ❯
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Criminal Justice Law enforcement Some things are fundamental to the history and progressive development of human society. The evolution of technology brings with it new challenges in the management of the…Read Full Paper ❯
This may mean an expansion of white-collar task forces designed to investigate such crimes. Question Predictions are that terrorist will continue to commit heinous criminal acts against our citizens in…Read Full Paper ❯
Issues of justice and fairness during the trial of offenders could also be found the area of timeliness under the criminal justice systems. Discussion Two: Issues Arising from Other…Read Full Paper ❯
Though the assets were seized without any promise or even expectation of individual officers gaining personal financial rewards, the ethical considerations of this problem are fairly obvious. It…Read Full Paper ❯
To have an appropriate policy outcome, an investigation is necessary to determine the basis of their relationship. This is necessary since both the attorney and the public will…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice Powell, Michael. "Bragging of Safety While Many Live in Fear." New York Times. 22 pril, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/22/nyregion/bragging-of-safety-while-many-live-in-fear.html In this article, Michael Powell claims that in spite of…Read Full Paper ❯
A variety of methods and designs can be used in criminal justice research. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are valid approaches to the sociological questions researchers will have when…Read Full Paper ❯
Research and Policy Development Paper Introduction Irrespective of how advanced the devices and systems used in receiving and sending information are, much success would not be achieved in crime reduction until…Read Full Paper ❯
Leadership in Criminal JusticePart 1Competence and Skill in Criminal Justice LeadershipThere are a wide range of inefficiencies that have been identified and explored in the criminal justice realm. Similarly,…Read Full Paper ❯
The Importance of Appropriate Evaluation Models Criminal justice policy and program evaluation is not a monolithic or standardized process. In other words there is no one size fits all approach…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychologists serve in various roles within the criminal justice system, as well as at every level of the criminal justice system from law enforcement to corrections. Some of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice Code of EthicsThe code of ethics provided by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences has stipulations on the ethical standards and the general principles underlying the professional…Read Full Paper ❯
Defining the ProblemCybersecurity has become a top concern in criminal justice policy at the local, state, and federal levels. Coordination between different law enforcement agencies is required to effectively…Read Full Paper ❯
Civil versus Criminal Liability Introduction Criminal justice practitioners do have a civil liability that puts them at risk of being sued by the public. The purpose of civil liability is to…Read Full Paper ❯
Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have the potential to yield reliable, valid, and important information that can be used to inform public policy. Criminal justice researchers use a…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice Organizations The entire criminal justice system is made up of numerous organizations which are inherently independent. Some of the criminal justice organizations in various counties include, but they…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice: Logic ModelIt is mandatory to keep funding the communities that have the potential of providing economic contribution. Grant funding is a way of acknowledging those communities efforts…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice: Sentencing a DefendantThe conviction of child sex offenders for each state and region is different since this is considered a debate upon what type of intentions and…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice: Crime Rate ComparisonCrime rates in the United States (US) have been rising. Certain rates for certain crimes are available for the previous years. The recent data has…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice - Forensics
Today, social science researchers have a wide range of research methods available for criminology and criminal justice applications, divided generally between quantitative and qualitative methods. Although quantitative and qualitative…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction Without any set moral guidelines and stipulations, a country’s criminal justice system is not capable of accurately meeting the needs of its people. The role of the system is…Read Full Paper ❯
Mental Health Support for Inmates in For Profit Prisons The thesis of this project is: The prison industry needs to do a better job of addressing the mental health needs…Read Full Paper ❯
One of the specific issues the Women’s Prison Association (WPA) addresses is how incarceration affects mothers, and how the criminal justice system can better address the needs of pregnant…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
Epistemology and Duty Ethics in Criminal Justice Ethical Issues 1 Ethics in Law Enforcement Agencies As Roufa (2019) notes, ethics in law enforcement are essential to prevent behaviors from going unchecked and…Read Full Paper ❯
Budget Proposal Strategy in California Criminal Justice AgencyBudgeting is one of the essential professional skills that help plan the future. Knowing the strategies required in budgeting is an advantage…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
Prison Industrial Complex and the Private Prison System 1 Legal paternalism is the idea that the state can coerce individuals into doing something for their own good, whether it is preventing…Read Full Paper ❯
Budget Proposal in California Criminal Justice AgencyA budget proposal is a formal document essentially detailed and research-supported for a given operating period. It provides the financial budget plan and…Read Full Paper ❯
Corrections / Police
Compare and Contrast the Current Dominant Approaches to Crime Prevention Introduction Given the diverse definitions of crime prevention, Schneider looks at it from the consequences approach. He defines it as a…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
The significance of ethical leadership in criminal justice and correctional organisations cannot be overemphasised. These organisations must put in place and enforce policies to ensure officers constantly act in…Read Full Paper ❯
Lawyer Misconduct and the Sixth Amendment Rights of the Accused 1 The responsibility of the law in preventing harm to oneself and upholding social morals varies from state to state. For…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminological Perspectives Criminological perspectives explain why people commit crime and why some people are more predisposed to engage in criminal activity than others. The trait, social, and classical/choice perspectives are…Read Full Paper ❯
How is the study of crime different from the ways crime is portrayed in movies, literature, and television?The issues of crime are portrayed differently in movies, literature and television…Read Full Paper ❯
The Need for Criminal Justice Reform and Bail Reform When it comes to incarceration, the U.S. has the worst record in the world: the U.S. is only 4.4% of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Restorative justice asks fundamentally different questions, and is based on a different set of assumptions, than the current criminal justice paradigm (Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth, n.d.). The most…Read Full Paper ❯
Understanding why individuals or groups engage in deviant or criminal behavior helps better inform therapeutic interventions and public policy. No one theory of crime can explain all criminal behavior.…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice - Police
From my knowledge in taking this course thus far as well as with my knowledge of being certified as a police officer, my position for how Dripps model would…Read Full Paper ❯
Corrections - Criminal Justice
Restorative Justice: How Just is the Philosophy? The principle of restorative justice was first created as an alternative to the two dominant philosophies of corrections: retribution and rehabilitation. The retributive…Read Full Paper ❯
Drugs: A Big Problem in Criminal Justice The problem of drug use in America is one that has been around for many years. However, with the recent passage of marijuana…Read Full Paper ❯
Behavioral Influences There are many behaviors that can influence change in criminal justice organizations. Social behavior influences change because the social systems that exist within an organization can help to…Read Full Paper ❯
Forensic science evolved as an attempt to introduce scientific methods into criminal justice. From the 18th century onward, advancements in chemistry, biology, and physics paved the way for forensic…Read Full Paper ❯
The 2012 Ken Burns documentary entitled The Central Park Five offers disturbing insight into institutionalized racism and the criminal justice system. Co-produced by Sarah Burns and David McMahon, The…Read Full Paper ❯
Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections Introduction The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era,…Read Full Paper ❯
Pros and Cons: Juvenile Justice Introduction There are pros and cons to indeterminate sentencing. As Portman (2018) points out, prison officials like the idea of indeterminate sentencing because they feel it…Read Full Paper ❯
The High Incarceration Rate: A Significant Issue Faced by the Criminal Justice System Abstract This paper examines the problem of the high rate of incarceration in America. This is a major…Read Full Paper ❯
Forensic Pathology Introduction Forensic pathology is a field in criminology and medical jurisprudence that focuses on the study of a corpse to determine evidence that can be used in criminal justice…Read Full Paper ❯
DNA Analysis Abstract This paper discusses the history of DNA analysis, how it came about, how it was first used in a criminal case, and some of the limitations of DNA…Read Full Paper ❯
Solitary Confinement Introduction As Clark (2017) points out, solitary confinement is typically a disciplinary, administrative or personal measure employed to punish, control or protect the individual who is isolated from others.…Read Full Paper ❯