713 results for “Animal Communication”.
Evolution may select certain birds that are able to produce mimicking mobbing calls and allow birds able to produce more effective alarm calls to survive, but there is also a neurological learning component from other birds. Also, "unlike children, who can learn any language they are exposed to, the musical language of most birds is somewhat constrained by their genetic heritage. Given a choice of two songs -- their own and that of another, even a closely related species -- they will learn their own. but, if exposed only to the song of another species, they will learn a version of it" (Brody, 1991:1). Thus, birds can develop certain species specific calls, like alarms, but also can within some constraint learn calls that sound the same and are recognizable to other species. Functionality is also an issue, as songs for mating, as discussed by Brody (1991) only have use…
Brody, Jane. "Not Just Music, Bird Song Is a Means of Courtship and Defense." The New
York Times. April 9, 1991. [18 Feb 2007] http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9D0CE7DC1230F93AA35757C0A967958260
Cully. Jack Jr. "Mobbing Behavior of a Pair of Elegant Trogons." The Condor Society.
Published by the Cooper Ornithological Society, 1986: 103-104. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v088n01/p0103-p0104.pdf
Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.
Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
8 (1): 247-63.
Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press
Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Leung, K., et.al. (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.
Levinson, W., et.al. (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills for Patient Centered Care. Health Affairs. 29 (7): 1310-18.
Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.communicationstudies.com/
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.
The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never available for both…
Fukuzawa, M.D.S. Mills and J.J. Cooper. (2005) Brief Communication: The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(3), 117-130.
Greenberg, G. (1986) Depth perception in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Spiny Mice (Comys russatus and A. cahirinus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(1), 81-84.
Herman, L.M., A.A. Pack and M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt. (1998) Seeing through sound: Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) perceive the spatial structure of objects through echolocation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117(3), 292-305.
acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this is why…
Bohmer, P., 1998, Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality, Available at:
Effective Communication Skills, 2009, Available at: http://www.maximumadvantage.com/
Horton, J, 2008, Why Looking Different Upsets Many People: Evolution, Available at:
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any individual or specific traits. Instead of perceiving the other person as…
Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online: http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
But to me, a young woman standing alone on a busy street in a still strange country, the word gaijin changed the tone of this encounter. For the group of teenagers waving and shouting at me, the word gaijin was merely a way of identifying their rare and exciting discovery. For me, a citizen of a country whose history has its share of prejudice and violence, the impersonal identification of me, based solely on my appearance, sounded like the racial and ethnic epithets hurled at Italian immigrants, African-Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Irish immigrants, Jews and millions of other people in the United States.
The word gaijin simply means "foreigner." It is not a derogatory term. But in Italy and the United States, two countries rich with immigrants from all over the world, the act of impersonally identifying a person's racial or ethnic background based solely on the person's appearance, is considered…
feature of language and why?
The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…
Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from:
Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from: http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test4materials/secondlangacquisition.htm
What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/grammar-what.htm
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one generation…
animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from…
ContiE et al. "Wolf." Wikipedia. March 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf
Hilty, John. "Eastern Prickly Pear." Insect Visitors of Prairie Wildflowers in Illinois. 2003. http://www.shout.net/~jhilty/plantx/prickly_pearx.htm
Marshman, et al. "Opuntia." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prickly_pear
Naddy, et al. "American Black Bear." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_bear
In general, communication refers to the sharing of ideas by transmitting those ideas from at least one individual to at least one other individual. Communication can involve several different mediums: it includes verbal transmission of ideas, visual transmission of ideas, and it can involve both deliberate and unintentional or even unconscious transmission of ideas. Communication is not necessarily limited to same species either: individuals from different species often communicate using postures, mannerisms, and sounds that are universally associated with particular concepts, such as aggression and dominance or submission and fear, among many others.
What is the purpose of communication?
Communication has many different purposes. Most generally, it is intended to allow another individual to understand the state of mind of another individual. That state of mind may include myriad different ideas such as aggression, non-aggression, interest, non-interest, possessiveness over resources, and even deception, such as in the case of certain species…
c) I would avoid something obviously inappropriate like wearing pyjamas to K-Mart or things like that. I would also avoid wearing ill-fitting clothes or clothes that are inappropriate for the environment. I would not wear my jogging sweats to a church function, for example. At the same time, I would not wear my Sunday best simply to go out for some KFC and fries. Wearing wildly inappropriate clothes in any situation would create the impression that I do not care enough about myself or what I am doing to think about what I wear.
Cornelius LaPide appears to be saying that all a person is in his or her heart can be seen in the face and eyes; even those who deceive others about this cannot hide the truth consistently from appearing on their faces. I agree with this. The mouth and eyes are, for me, the most expressive parts…
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
media equation theory and its applications. The author of this paper uses the movie The Truman Show to develop an understanding for the reader of what the Media Equation Theory is and how it can be applied to media examples such as the movie. There were six sources used to complete this paper. The paper is in MLA format.
MEDIA THEORY IN PRACTICE
The technological explosion of the last three decades has taken us to places we never dreamed before were possible. ith each passing year, the technology becomes more linked to human thought and emotions than ever before. Today, there are studies being conducted worldwide to understand the phenomena of people treating their media tools in the same manner that their human interactions are treated. For several years, the habits and protocol of people who work with these questions have been narrowly defined by the rigid demands of research protocol.…
Reeves, Byron. Nass. Clifford. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (C SLI Publications 1997)
This source was a major source for the paper in that it explains the theory itself as well as applies it to several real life media scenarios. The highlights detail the belief of the authors tht we are becoming more ingrained with media tools than ever before and assigning them human like qualities.
Luskin, Bernard J., Toward an understanding of media psychology. (educational CDs) (Technology Information). Vol. 23, THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 02-01-1996, pp 82(3).
This source was a solid source of information for the paper. Its highlights included the discussion of media psychology and the way humans today, interact and feel about their media tools. Many of the facts presented in the paper dovetail with the belief we are integrating more and more with media as if it has feelings, intellect and emotions. The source was viable for the foundational explanation of the theory itself.
Pooch Pantry - Unit VII - Communications, Sponsorship, and New Products
The communications objectives for the firm and the product will impact on the way the messages are created and the channels used to make those communications. The communications objectives may be divided into two main categories; the retailers who the firm will want to stock the product, and the consumers who will be the end users.
The communication to the consumers may be argued as most important, as this will impact directly on consumers' knowledge and intention to purchase. etailers will also consider the marketing support that is provided by the firm, as they will want to stock products that are likely to sell, so they can use their shelf space effectively (Kotler & Keller, 2011)
Looking first at the consumer marketing the initial objectives will be to create product and brand awareness, so that consumers know what the product is…
Brennan, J, (2014), IBISWorld Industry Report 45391, Pet Stores in the U.S., IBISWorld
Egan, J, (2007), Marketing Communication, Cengage Learning
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall
Raab, Gerhard; Goddard, G; Jason; Riad Ajami A; Unger Alexander, (2010), The Psychology of Marketing, Gower
The communication aid would need to be durable so that Darmoth could not accidentally break it (he is not always very gentle with his "toys" and often does not realize his own strength) as well as easily portable so that he could carry it around with him. Perhaps having the tool be connected to a strap that kept it "hands free" when he is moving around would be ideal. It would have to be simple enough for him to learn how to operate, but also have a wide range of functions. The device must be able to translate Darmoth's thoughts into something that others -- even those who are not specifically trained -- can understand. The evaluation of a specialist would be extremely helpful so that the best kind of tool can be identified for Darmoth's needs.
The first step I would take in convincing the administration that an outside evaluation…
Abilitytech. (2004) Abilitytech: Computer Special Needs Solutions. Retrieved on November 12, 2004 at http://www.abilitytech.com.au/.
ATRC. (2004) Adaptive Technology Research Centre. University of Toronto. Retrieved on November 12, 2004 at http://www.utoronto.ca/atrc/ .
Cook, Albert & Hussey, Susan (2002) Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby. ISBN 0-323-00643-4
CAC. (2004) Speech and Language Therapy Department. Communication Aid Centre. Retrieved on November 12, 2004 at http://www.cacfrenchay.nhs.uk/cac_hist.htm.
One such study looked at a general look at what regulates and influence how bold or shy someone is. This manifests in humans but it also manifests in other animals such as fish and rabbits. When looking at fish, it was clear that bold fish had fewer interactions overall while shyer fish were much more conservative and reserved yet held series of reactions with a small group of friends. It is noted that even though animals are much simpler than humans in terms of physiology, they still have very complex social networks (Pike, 2008).
This particular study looked at whether the ratio of bold and shy fish had an overall reaction on the group's composition as a whole. In other words, and to ensure that this is perceived to be applicable to neurons, it is assessed whether the bold fish influence the neuron/synapse pathways and, thus, the overall behavior patterns of…
IntroPsych. (2013, March 3). How Neurons Communicate | in Chapter 02: Human Nervous System | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Table of Contents for Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://www.intropsych.com/ch02_human_nervous_system/how_neurons_communicate.html
NIH. (2013, March 3). Communication Between Synapses. NIH. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709812/
Pike, T. (2008, January 1). Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network . Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1650/2515.full
Sekata, J. (2004, January 1). ScienceDirect.com - Animal Behaviour - Social experience affects territorial and reproductive behaviours in male leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. ScienceDirect.com | Search through over 11 million science, health, medical journal full text articles and books.. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347201919529
Human interactions with nonhuman animals should be guided solely by the impact of these interactions with other human beings, and not upon any perceived impact upon nonhuman animals themselves. This argument is based largely upon Descartes' understanding of the essential difference between humans and nonhuman animals. Descartes' argues that the body is external to the mind, and that non-human animals do not possess the pure, thinking mind of humans. Thus, Descartes argues that nonhuman animals are simply machines, and that human treatment of animals should only be guided by the impact of such interaction upon other humans. In contrast, thinkers like Anthony eston have argued that similarity of human and animal perception and experience means that human should treat animals as feeling beings. Similarly, Abram argues that the human connection with the natural world should govern our interaction with animals. Descartes' arguments for the uniqueness of human thought essentially counter…
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human
World. Vintage, 1997.
Descartes, Rene. Animals are Machines. In Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, eds S.J. Armstrong and R.G. Botzler, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993,
Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer whales to adjust their call duration levels to compensate for the background noise. This clearly indicates that anthropogenic noise levels directly interfere with the routine life of the killer whales, which are dependent on vocal communication for successful hunting and survival. [Andrew et.al. 2004]
It is well-known that anthropogenic sounds can even have fatal consequences as evidenced by the recent mass strandings of beaked whales that coincided with the mid frequency sonar exercises by the navy. A recent research by (Holt et.al, 2009) focused on the effects of anthropogenic sounds on the vocal behavior of killer whales. The resident killer whales of the waters of the Puget Sound, Seattle, were the subjects of this study. The southern resident killer whales in three…
Whale Songs, 'Killer Whale', Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.whalesongs.org/cetacean/killer_whale/home.html
SeaWorld, ' Killer Whales: Communication and Echo Location," Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/killer-whale/communication.htm
Wilfredo Santiago Benitez, 'Echolocation and strategy used by Southern resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) during foraging', 2005, Accessed 15th March 2009, available at http://beamreach.org/051/papers/wilfredo.pdf
Volcker B. Deecke, John KB Ford & Peter JB Slater, 'The Vocal Behavior of Mammal eating killer Whales: Communicating with Costly Calls ' Animal Behavior, 2005, 69, 395-405, http://www.behaecol.amu.edu.pl/files/the_vocal_behav_of_mammal-eating_killer_whales.pdf
Mastery Over Nature and the Exotic Animal Trade
Humankind has always had a fascination with nature and specifically animals in nature and even more specifically with conquering the animal or gaining mastery over the animal. The exotic animal has been the focus of great aspiration of humankind to attain mastery over. The reasons for this are varied in nature with some individuals obtaining exotic animals for their own pleasure and as examined in this particular informative study there is desire for obtaining exotic animals so that human beings can experience the animals of nature.
Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide, South Australia
The setting examined in this study is that of the Adelaide Zoo, located Adelaide, South Australia. The work of Kay Anderson entitled "Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontier of Human Geography" reports that in the suburban backyard, people unknowingly "make their more routine interventions in nature by clearing ground and…
Adams, G., Fisher, L., Le Blond, D., Mazur, N., McMahon, C., Peckover, T., Schmiechen, J. And Sharrad, N. 1991, The role of the Adelaide Zoo in conservation, Report prepared for the Royal Zoological Study of South Australia, Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, The University of Adelaide.
Anderson, K (1994) Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontiers of Human Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. N.S. 20(3) 275-294. Retrieved from: http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/150953/Anderson95_CultureNatureAdelaideZoo_CCRCopyFinal.pdf
Tarpy, C. 1993, 'New zoos -- taking down the bars', National Geographic, July: 2-38.
Thomas, K. 1983, Man and the natural world: changing attitudes in England 1500-1800, Allen Lane, London.
Hierarchy of Animals
THE ELATIVE HIEACHY OF ANIMALS
Are human beings worthy of being considered the highest form of animal life?
Whether or not human beings can fairly be considered the highest form of animal life depends largely on how one chooses to define the objective hierarchical criteria. If one proposes that relative hierarchical status is determined by the range of sensory modalities with which an organism perceives and interacts with the physical world, then mammalian species that have evolved ultrasonic communication or the cerebral capacity to generate and interpret sonar transmission, such as bats and dolphins, would outrank human beings (Berry, 1996).
If one defines relative hierarchy by life span, then reptiles such as sea tortoises and numerous avian species such as parrots occupy the highest position on the scale of life on Earth. If one defines hierarchical relationships based on duration of existence on Earth, then the highest forms of existing biological…
Berry, A. (1996) Galileo and the Dolphins. Wiley & Sons: New York
Moussaieff Mason, J., McCarthy, S. (1995) When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Delacorte: New York
Wenke, R. (1999) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First Three Million
Years. Oxford University Press: New York
It is totally unacceptable for men or women to touch each other inappropriately or sexually unless they are in a relationship of some sort, and after a certain age, it is inappropriate for boys to touch girls, except in very neutral or general ways. These norms differ in different cultures, and some cultures are much more closed about touching. For example, in our society, hugging is an accepted way to greet or say goodbye to someone, but in other cultures, that would be inappropriate, so norms differ throughout the world.
These norms are established through culture and society. Each culture raises their children differently, so they learn tactile communication differently. Some cultures are extremely open to touching and non-verbal communication, while others are more reserved. In addition, in any culture, there can be people who are non-tactile, and do not like being touched. The norms for these individuals can be…
Andersen, P.A. (2005). The touch avoidance measure. In the sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words, Manusov, V. (Ed.) (pp. 57-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Andersen, P.A., & Guerrero, L.K. (2005). Measuring live tactile interaction: The body chart coding approach. In the sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words, Manusov, V. (Ed.) (pp. 83-91). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Many times a person is born with a condition that requires, or acquires the need for, augmentive communication. Due some form of deficit the individual is not able to communicate in a manner normally used to communicate. Due to this inability the individual may need some form of assistance to interact normally with others and express their ideas. This paper defines augmentive communication, and provides examples of how devices are used to enhance the communication abilities of students in special education classrooms.
Actually, every person uses this type of communication because verbal expressions are just a small part of actual communication. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA, 2011) defines augmentive communication as "all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas." The website says that this is includes all of the nonverbals people use to communicate every day. The ASLHA (2011) says…
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA). (2011). Augmentive and alternative communication. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/AAC.htm
Burkhart, L.J. (2011). Simplified technology. Retrieved from http://www.lburkhart.com/
Noam Chomsky's Language Criteria - Do Animals Have Language?
Philosophers and scientists have long wondered whether animals were capable of communicating with each other in the form of language. However, research regarding both the cranial and cognitive capacity of higher mammals suggests that these animals are capable of many cerebral functions that used to be the purview of humans.
This paper argues that higher mammals like primates, dolphins and whales are capable of and have evolved a complex language of their own. Towards this, the paper looks at the recent research done regarding the "whistling" and other auditory communication among dolphins. In arguing that this "whistling" constitutes and fulfills the functions of language, the paper uses the framework on the syntactic structures and the various aspects of language. Through an application of Chomsky's criteria, this paper argues that dolphins have evolved a communication system made of whistling sounds that serve many of…
Chomsky, Noam. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins, and Use. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Dolphin Whistles Offer Signs of Language Ability." New York Times, September 5, 2000: F2. Proquest Database.
Humes, Edward. "Navy Researchers see Marine Mammals' Potential to Perform Deep-sea Duty." Orange County Register, August 7, 1988: K01. Proquest Database
Suplee, Curt. "Dolphins May Communicate Individually; Exchange of 'Signature' Whistles in the Wild Suggests a Form of Language." The Washington Post, August 25, 2000: A3. Proquest Database.
Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.
Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig could want…
East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,
From http://www.fosterfacts.net .
Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle
And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.sacbee.com.
Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product
"The Body Shop" offers a wide range of naturally inspired cosmetics and toiletry products. The brand, originally created in the United Kingdom, distributes its products and expresses its values through a large multi-channel network of exclusive retail shops (1,088 company owned and 1,517 franchisees) in more than 60 countries, as well as through home and online sales. The purpose of this report is developing an international marketing plan for a new product; a special shampoo which mitigates the hair loss problem of people, particularly for men, to be added to the range for international market in Asia for the Body Shop.
An international marketing plan including an analysis of marketing potential and target segment of the new product, a marketing communication programme for the new product is indicated in this report.
This report also provides a SWOT analysis for The Body Shop and identifies the direct…
Innate animal behavior is the internalized congenital system adapted for the facilitation of survival and reproduction. It is a basic element of ethology. The receptor capability of studying this behavior is due to simplified nervous systems among invertebrates. This ethological research through vision is referred to as overt animal behavior. This animal behavior can be categorized into three major classifications; innate, learned or complex. Learned animal behavior is the possession of behavioral characteristics through experience. This context discusses innate and complex animal behaviors in detail.
Reflexes can be referred to as an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. They are responses triggered by disturbances in the environment surrounding an organism. The basic unit in connection to innate behavior is the simple reflex arc. The behavior is a neural alleyway that involves few neurons in most cases two neurons, which are the sensory and the motor neurons. The work of…
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
Invention of the wheel will transform transportation and communication both. This is…
St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.
Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
The slaughtering of cows is forbidden by law (Potpourri, 2009).
It is clear that when he made the "don't have a cow" comment, John Smith was not aware of the status of cows in Indian culture -- or he temporarily forgot about it. This situation is the perfect example as to how can different cultural values impede communication. Instead of focusing on the promotional campaign -- the core of the first dispute -- the two parties became engaged in a more intense dispute which prevented them from addressing the work related matter on the table. In a theoretical formulation, the conflict aroused as Smith failed to obey one of the most important rules of intercultural communication -- that of being aware of and respecting the cultural symbols and values of his culturally diverse colleagues (Hahn, 2009). Within the workplace, the effects were those of accentuated conflicts and tensions, as well…
Hahn, M., 2009, Ten Commandments of Intercultural Communication, http://ezinearticles.com/?Ten-Commandments-of-Intercultural-Communication&id=120247 last accessed on August 21, 2009
Harris, M., 2009, Intercultural Communication in the Workplace, http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1714083/intercultural_communication_in_the.html?cat=9 last accessed on August 21, 2009
Potpourri, K., 2009, Indian Culture Q&a, http://www.kamat.com/indica/culture/holy-cow.htm last accessed on August 21, 2009
Animal Consciousness. Do Horses Gallop in Their Sleep? By Matt Cartmill
The article is an incisive look at the issue of consciousness and the human and animal brain. It attempts to show how the human consciousness is construed by human beings themselves and how the animal lack of the same it argued out. The writer presents a case scenario where the human brain section that deals with conscious memory is numbed out by some special drug that has been discovered such that he will not have a recollection of what they did in the past, then he poses to ask if such will change the human to animal. The article goes on to draw attention to the activities that animals often do like a dog rummaging through the many toys to retrieve a given favorite toy and bringing it to the owner for them to play. The writer then asks…
PEER RESPONSES 4Peer ResponsesPeer Reply 1 - David VelazquezAccording to Regan (1985), to be an experiencing subject of life simply means that someone has lived and experienced life. To further explain, it means that the subject has lived through emotions, suffered physically or mentally, felt pain, been happy and sad, and essentially everything that comes along with those things. He argues though that animals also have the same experiences, they just arent able to express them through a type of human form of communication that we would understand (Regan, 1985). In other words, the animals cant tell the story like we can. I do agree that by simply living you have the inherent right to live. I think where the waters get muddy is when you have someone for instance, that is maybe considered brain dead because of an illness or injury. In those cases, they are arguably not living…
The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized farms. CAFO's,…
"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.gracelinks.org/982/energy-use-climate-change
"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15
April 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp
After World War Two, Carson realized the extent to which the government was permitting the use of toxic chemicals and wrote a book to expose the practice. That book was called Silent Spring, and it "challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world."[footnoteef:8] Jensen includes an excerpt from Silent Spring to show that Carson was up against one of the most lucrative industries in the world, and that although her work is unfinished, Carson made a huge impact on raising awareness and eventually her work got DDT banned. [8: "The Life and Legacy of achel Carson," Accessed May 3, 2013, http://www.rachelcarson.org/Biography.aspx#.UYOWMCshKII]
Malcolm X's autobiography was arguably not a project undertaken as a form of muckraker journalism. The author started writing when he was in prison, and he comes to learn the power of the written word…
Carson, Rachel. "Silent Spring." Excerpt in Stories that Changed America, edited by Carl Jensen, 117-123.
Daily Censored. "Carl Jensen." Accessed May 3, 2013, http://www.dailycensored.com/writers/carl-jensen/
The Daily Show. "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart," Accessed May 3, 2013, http://www.thedailyshow.com/
Jensen, Carl. Stories that Changed America. New York: Seven Stories, 2002.
properties of human language (displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural, transmission, discreteness, duality) discuss how human language differs from animal communication.
Unlike animal language, human language can possess the property of displacement. Displacement "allows the users of language to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment." (21) A human need not cry out in pain in the moment, but one can describe the silent pain one felt later on, displacing the experience into the future rather than when it was actually experienced. 'Let me tell you what a day I had,' is a very human, displaced expression. There is also a less arbitrary nature to human language, because human language is contextual. For instance, for although same beast would be a dog in England or a perro in Spain, yet the same dog would still give the same barking sound in both lands, if it were the same…
Yule, George. "The Study of Language." Second edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996
Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.
Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.
This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.
Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as a survival…
Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
Symbols, the Mind, and the Animal State
In Chapter 7 of Maps of Time, David Christian (2011) discusses how human language is built not only of "icons" and "indices," which are types of recognition, correlation, and communication that many organisms from bacteria to dogs can use, but primarily of symbols -- a more complex and higher-order level of communication (p. 172). This is only part of a larger discussion on the development of human history, however it is worthy of consideration simply as its own advancement and unique feature. An understanding of how language is a definitive feature of humanity, and of the implications of a division between man and nature, creates valuable insights for understanding human development.
As explained by Christian (2011), certain associations can be made by many organisms between similar or concurrent experiences in a way that might appear to be symbolic learning or communication, but that falls…
Christian, D. (2011). Maps of Time. Berkley: University of California Press.
Emmerich, R. (2004). The Day After Tomorrow. Twentieth Century Fox Films.
Levi, P. (1975). Carbon. Accessed 4 March 2012. www.pems.adfa.edu.au/~s9471553/level1/Teaching/Health02/CarbonStory.pdf
appended meaning according to the outledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.
Scientific discipline developed from the cooperation of linguistics and sociology that investigates the social meaning of the language system and of language use, and the common set of conditions of linguistic and social structure. Several areas of sociolinguistic investigation are differentiated.
(a) A primarily sociologically oriented approach concerned predominantly with the norms of language use. (When and for what purpose does somebody speak what kind of language or what variety with whom?) Here language use and language attitudes as well as larger and smaller social networks are in the foreground. These facets are studied mainly by using quantitative methods; connections between socioeconomics, history, culture, ethnic differentiation, social class structure, and language varieties are included in the investigation (diglossia, code theory).
(b) A primarily linguistically oriented approach that presumes linguistic systems to be in principle heterogeneous, though structured, when viewed within sociological…
Bussmann H., (1996). Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. New York: Routledge.
Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis
Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).
In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a diet rich…
Wollen, Philip. "Animals Should Be Off The Menu." www.youtube.com Web. https://youtu.be/uQCe4qEexjc
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.
The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf has…
Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.
Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.
Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
Krauss and Morsella say that under the dialogic paradigm individual speakers act with respect to the individuals they are addressing, but they are acting as individual entities (p. 152). This is because we can only attempt to understand the mind of others, to decode their words, even their body language, and try to put that into a perspective of meaning to us as individuals. Krauss and Morsella provide points on how to improve our skills as communicators. Listening is tangential to being a good communicator. Listening trains us to hear more than words, but concepts too, and the concepts that others are trying to convey to us are essential to our understanding of their position in a conflict. Before we can resolve conflict, we must understand the nature of the conflict, and the nature of conflict can seldom be expressed in a few words or sentences. They are expressed in…
Deutch, M. And Coleman, P. (2000). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Josey-Bass Publishers.
Likewise, McCain (2003) reports that, "The United States is a dog-loving nation. The American Veterinary Medical Association says about 36% of U.S. households own dogs, compared with 31% that own cats. The most popular breeds, the American Kennel Club says, are Labrador retrievers, golden retrievers and German shepherds" (2). According to the Southwest Boston Dog Owners' Group (2007), "The number of licensed dogs in Boston is 8,500; Animal Control estimates the total number of dogs in the city is 40,000" (Petition to Boston City Council and Mayor's office 4).
The results of the 2000 census of Boston showed that the city enjoys a healthy percentage of middle- to upper-middle class residents as shown in Table ____ below.
2000 Census Breakdown of Household Incomes in Boston.
Less than $10,000
10,000 to $14,999
15,000 to $24,999
25,000 to $34,999
35,000 to $49,999
50,000 to $74,999
75,000 to $99,999
100,000 to $149,999
150,000 to $199,999
200,000 or more
Median household income (dollars)
Source: Profile of…
Barker, Randolph T. (2005). "On the Edge or Not? Opportunities for Interdisciplinary Scholars in Business Communication to Focus on the Individual and Organizational Benefits of Companion Animals in the Workplace." The Journal of Business Communication 42(3):299.
Boston Housing Authority: Elderly & Disabled Housing Program Pet Policy. (October 1, 2000). Boston Housing Authority. [Online]. Available: http://www.bostonhousing.org/pdfs/OPS2003ElderlyPetPolicy.pdf .
Dennick, Reg and Kate Exley. Small Group Teaching. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.
Goldberg, Jonah. (2002, December 9). "Man Bites Dog: The Axis of Evil Takes on Canines," National Review 54(23):37.
communicative processes of humans to those of non-humans, taking as a primary example the member of the primate family the chimpanzee with follow up examples from birds, members off the canine family and cats. Bibliography cites no sources.
Human and non-human communication, a comparison of interspecies speak
Humans and animals are very different creatures, however if we look at the differences in communication we can see that although humans have the ability to form words in their form of communication, animals also have their own unique way of communication, birds chirp and whistle, primates hoot and stamp the ground and wolves or those of the canine family growl, use their ears and tails in their own form of sign language.
Moreover if we compare the system of communication with that of those that are closest to the human race but are not human, this is the primate family, for this comparison we…
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added about…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
"The monkey's larynx, while quite distinct from that of the human being, is not as much so as that of parrots, which clearly can speak. As to their brains, the comparison with that of the latter banishes all doubts." As the narrator tries to teach the title ape to speak, he swears that Yzur takes on a more contemplative expression. The narrator compares the ape to "ancient men of the forest, who were forced into silence and submission" as well as the mentally deficient. But because the monkey is not fully human and does not speak like him, the man sees him as inferior and ultimately drives the monkey man.
The tendency to see 'the other' as inferior is manifest in prejudice against native people as well as animals. esnick's allegorical story shows how human violence and prejudice is an endless cycle. The relationship between humans and animals is more…
Lugones, Leopoldo. (2007). Yzur. ERBZine. 1869. Retrieved December 13, 2010 at http://www.erbzine.com/mag18/yzur.htm
Naess, Arne & George Sessions. (2010). Deep Ecology Platform. Foundation for Deep Ecology.
Retrieved December 13, 2010 at http://www.deepecology.org/platform.htm
Resnick, Mike. (2001). The Elephants on Neptune. Asimov's Science Fiction.
Vervet Monkey, or Chlorocebus, is part of the Old-orld monkey classification of medium sized primates. There are typically six species that science recognizes, but there is disagreement as to whether this is one species of a species and subspecies. For the entire species of Chloroceus, the terms "vervet" and "green" monkey are used interchangeably even though there refer to some other species as common names (Groves).
Species: Ch. aethiops, Ch. cynosuros, Ch. djamdjamensis, Ch. pygerythrus, Ch. sabaeus, Ch. tantalus
Subspecies: Ch. p. excubitor, Ch. p. hilgerti, Ch. p. nesiotes, Ch. p. pygerythrus, Ch. p. rufoviridis, Ch. t. budgetti, Ch. t. marrensis, Ch. t. tantalus
Other names: Ch. aethiops: Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus aethiops, or Chlorocebus aethiops; grivet or savanna monkey; singe vert (French); grunmeerkatze (German); mono verde (Spanish); gron markatta or vervett (Swedish); Ch. cynosuros: malbrouck; Ch. djamdjamensis: Bale Mountains vervet or djam-djam; Ch. pygerythrus: Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus…
Cheney, D, and R. Seyfarth. How Monkeys See The World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Print.
Groves, C. "Genus Chlorocebus." Mammal Species of the World. Ed. D. Wilson and D. Reeder. 3rd. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 158-60. Print.
National Research Council. International Perspectives on the future on nonhuman primate resources. Washington, DC.: National Research Council, 2002. Print.
"Vervet Chlorocebus." 21 November 2011. Primate Info Net. Web. February 2012. .
people generally think that we can detach ourselves from the world around us and objectively evaluate and reason through our experiences. This is the classical line of thought initially proposed by philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates, and, later, Descartes who fashioned his Cartesian principle to the purpose that we can step back, evaluate our internalized knowledge, think it through and from thence, decide which to accept, which to erase in order to formulate a foundation of 'sure and safe beliefs. ationalism persisted through Kant and then to Husserl who fashioned his phenomenology proposing that performing 'epoche' i.e. bracketing our assumptions can lead us to better seeing the essence of the phenomena and to perceiving an objective world.
Others are less certain.
Benjamin Whorf and Edward Sapir, for instance, believe that it is our vocabulary -- our language -- that shapes our perceptions. Sapir argued that:
Human beings do not live in the…
Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Business Communication Today. NY, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Burnett, M.J., & Dollar, A. (1989). Business Communication: Strategies for Success. Houston, Texas: Dane.
Language and thought processes http://mrhoyestokwebsite.com/
Bioluminescence can be discovered across an extensive selection of some of the key categories of organisms. This includes classifications such as bacteria and protists and also squid as well as ?she's, with numerous phyla amid them. In many of these organisms, luminescence is made by these organisms themselves and never by bacterial symbionts. A few organisms in this category that are not considered to be self-illuminescents are (1) terrestrial vertebrates, such as birds, mammals and amphibians (2) ?owering plants. Luminescence is usually higher in deep-living species along with planktonic ones than in shallow organisms (Haddock et al., 2010).
A summary of known luminous organisms had been documented by Herring (1987). However, since that time there have been a number of new discoveries of luminous organisms. In some instances, it is very difficult to determine that the species are nonluminous. Amid ?lter-feeding species, luminescence is very difficult to inspect. This is…
Bush SL, Robison BH, Caldwell RL. 2009. Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural, and biolu- minescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young 1972. Biol. Bull. 216:7 -- 22
Carnevale G. 2008. Miniature deep-sea hatchet-sh (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the Miocene of Italy. Geol. Mag. 145:73
Fleisher KJ, Case JF. 1995. Cephalopod predation facilitated by dino-agellate luminescence. Biol. Bull. 189:263 -- 71
Fristrup KM, Harbison G. 2002. How do sperm whales catch squids? Mar. Mammal Sci. 18:42 -- 54
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites continue…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
telepathy and how it does or does not really exist in the world we live. There are various schools of thought discussed in this paper to highlight the concept of this term that has een there for many centuries.
The term "telepathy" was coined in 1882 y W.H Myers, who was also one of the founding memers of the society for Psychical Research. Telepathy is a Greek term, tele means 'distant' and pathe means 'feeling'. Many different researchers egan to take interest in telepathy when many enthralled y the phenomenon of mesmerism.
This new scientific suject egan to pick up momentum when other psychologists and psychiatrists were oserving the same phenomena in their patients. Sigmund Fraud also oserved telepathy in his own son and felt that this issue needed to e delved into in greater depth. After studying telepathy he came to the conclusion that this is a phenomena that may…
bibliography. These articles have all been used to write this paper because they contain not only scientific information but also information on how there is evidence for the existence of such a phenomenon and the various experiments carried out by scientists from previous generations till today. The information is reliable because most of the sites are from various universities and research centers or written by those who have the knowledge to tell us too. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the fact that this does not really exist but then there is evidence that proves to us that it does, it is one issue that still has a lot to be researched on. On reading the paper, I am sure the reader will be in a better position to understand what telepathy is and how much evidence is there to believe that it does or does not exist in this world that we live in..
Telepathy, available at http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/t/telepathy.html
Telepathy, available at http://www.crystalinks.com/telepathy.html
PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL BELIEF, available at http://www.mwsc.edu/psychology/research/psy302/spring97/pam_blizzard.html
Why are we not Telepathic?, available at http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/cite/staff/philosopher/aquinas.htm
Pamela a Virtue Rewarded written Samuel Richardson
ext Message from Pamela
Hi mum and Dad, we travelled well and reached our destination safely. We are grateful to God for bringing us to our new home safely. My Husband has gone through a great deal in making our new home. He is hesitant at changing the design of the house. He argues that the house looks its best the way it is. Am not so sure as to whether we should change the decor and design or leave it as it is. Anyhow, we hope to come to a consensus soon.
Good news though, my husband proposes that we have the work start on refurbishing the house. Last evening he shared with me his desired designs that he already has figured out. How I wish that the new house would sever between the sounds from the noisy hornbill and the melodious chirrups…
The length of letters makes them boring and monotonous. The use of text messages makes the message shorter and less monotonous. Text messages allows for a dialogue of sorts between the parties conversing. Letters embody a monologue type of communication allowing only one party to communicate at a time. Text messages are similar to phone conversation only that in their case the message is not passed via sound.
Text messages, or SMS as they are commonly known, have risen to replace letters in modern day conversation. According to Robinson (2008), conversation is a language used in social worlds. Effective conversation is important for the message to be received and remembered when need be. Letters formed the old modes of conversation. The long time that took between dispatch and receipt of missives made the mode less desirable for the passing of urgent messages and those messages that need urgent reply.
American Myths Nature Environment
Unlimited Growth and Finite Resources
Western Civilization is currently coming to terms with some very important and unsettling realities. Capitalism, and modern economics thinkers, have idolized economic growth without limit. In most economic textbooks and theories, economic growth is considered an end good, and a lack of economic growth a problem.
Though we can argue about whether economic growth is a good in all situations, it is indisputable that economic growth has natural limits. These natural limits are created by our own natural environment. For this reason, the culture of "more" which dominates Western Civilization and drives all of our reasoning, is not sustainable.
The effect of Western industrial capitalist civilization on the environment has been huge. The culture of Western civilization, currently driven by an ethic of individualism and materialism, empowered by science and technology, has done irreversible damage to the natural environment and continues to do so. The…
Hobson, K. (January 01, 2006). Environmental responsibility and the possibilities of pragmatist-orientated research. Social & Cultural Geography, 7, 2, 283-298.
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Vintage Books, 1997. Print.
Sessions, G. (January 01, 1991). Ecocentrism and the anthropocentric detour. Revision, 13, 3.)
Colombo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle.Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992. Print.
The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.
Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to 12. Pack…
Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.
Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.
Lopez, B. (2004). Of wolves and men. Scribner Mech, D. (2007). Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation. University Of Chicago Press.
V, A. (2009). Recovery of gray wolves in the great lakes region of the United States: An endangered species success story.
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…
Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.
Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.
Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.
Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
When the driver looked in the hole, he found a dog sleeping inside -- and only when the dog was chased away would the elephant place the log into the hole (Holdrege, 2001).
Octopi -- Suprisingly, octopi have been shown to use tools. The will retrieve discarded coconut shells, manipulate them, and then reassemble them to use as a makeshift shelter (Coghlan, 2009). Other octopi will use Jellyfish and Portugese Man o War tenticles that they shear as their own weapon. They are the only invertebrates known to use tools and show surprising cognitive ability in mazes, food training, and even handler recognition (Jones, 1963).
Implications - esearch into this new discovery is important because it redefines what it means to be "human," as well as implications about the evolution of violence and hominid predation. Finally, an understanding of non-human "culture" may help in answers questions about other intelligent species and…
Coghlan, A. (2009, December 14). Octopuses Use Coconut Shells as Portable Shelters. Retrieved October 2010, from The New Scientist: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18281-octopuses-use-coconut-shells-as-portable-shelters.html
Cohen, J. (2010). Almost Chimpanzee: Searching for What Makes Us Human. Chicago: Times Books.
De Waal, F. (2007). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
"Emerging Explorers," (2010). The National Geographic Society. Cited in:
Transferring and Objectives You Hope to Achieve:
Since my ultimate career goal is to gain the knowledge, experience and qualifying skills to be hired by a flourishing corporation in their finance department -- eventually following in my mother's footsteps as a chief financial officer -- I am eager to transfer from Pepperdine to the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California.
The Marshall School of Business consistently rates high according to the ranking by U.S. News & World Report -- and by BusinessWeek, Bloomberg's respected publication -- and the business school's undergraduate accounting program, which I am also very interested in, has high ratings as well. My desire to get an education in finance first led me from Pennsylvania to the University of Pacific, and thereafter to Pepperdine University.
But after a semester at Pepperdine, I know I need a stronger challenge in a university with leading edge educational…
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives. Hawthorne saw technology positively influencing the lives of those taking advantage of it and helping them get out of the darkness of unknown; Dick was imagining a much more gloomy outcome of the combination between human nature and technology, while Taylor was presenting the importance of addressing the issues of prosperity in an industrial society benefitting the advantages of technology solely from the point-of-view of science.
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. etreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. etrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmc0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. Retreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPRk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. Retrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmcR0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
he idea of the communication failure between Gregor and his family is emphasized through the use of a very powerful metaphor, i.e. he doors in Gregor's room. Gregor's room is both a safe retreat and a place of complete isolation from his family, similarly to how the author himself took refuge from his father in his room. In fact, Gregor's room can be deconstructed as a symbol for Kafka's own life in his father's house; in this sense, the room becomes an escape in both cases. In Gregor's case, the room symbolizes his escape in both instances of his life; as a young man, he retreats to his room where he is at the same time hidden from and harassed by his family. Secondly, as a bug, he finds shelter in his room which also acts as his prison as he is no longer able to exit without his…
The issue of communication is very strong throughout the story. Gregor becomes detached from humanity not only through the physical process of transformation that he undergoes, but also through the complete loss of communication that results as a consequence of his metamorphosis. The failure to communicate with his own family creates a breach between Gregor's inner life which has essentially remained the same, and the outer world which perceives him as an insect, and not a human being. In other words, Gregor remains Gregor in his own eyes, but his appearance determined his sister and parents to regard him as a mere insect. This accounts for the communication wedge between the now-insect Gregor and his family who do not accept that despite his appearance, he is still their son and brother. With the exception of the rare loving addresses of his mother, Gregor is shown neither affection nor understanding.
No explanation is provided as to Gregor's metamorphosis. In fact, such an explanation would is not even relevant but the reader is free to assume that the salesman turned into a giant bug because of the hardship and isolation of his life. However the main change in his life is brought by his helplessness and his feeling of redundancy in the eyes of his own family. His personal life does not change dramatically as he is shown the same lack of compassion and understanding as before. Nevertheless, he is now completely unimportant to his family as he can no longer provide for them hence they sever all ties with him and stop seeing Gregor as a member of the family.
Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. Kessinger Publishing, 2001.
" At the same time, it may be a lesson in perspective given that pigs are smarter than dogs and no less appreciative of human companionship than dogs when befriended instead of raised somewhat inhumanely and slaughtered for food.
The Plight of the Polar Bear
According to environmental experts like Kassie Siegel of the Centre for Biological Diversity, based in California, the natural habitat of the Polar Bear is disappearing too fast to sustain the species in the wild for much longer. Global climate change has caused so much of the Arctic ice to melt that Polar bears are unable to pursue enough food to maintain a healthy body weight, reproduce, or nourish their cubs to adulthood.
Unfortunately, there may be little that can be done for the Polar Bear beyond preserving the species in captivity unless there is a dramatic increase in technology capable of reversing climate change. Andrew Derocher of the…
I mean, yes it is tasty, but what happened to variety? We get such an interesting assortment of food choices in the wild, can't humans be a little more resourceful than feeding us the same seeds day after day?
Another trait which makes obviously superior to other species are the beautiful and vivid colors which adorn our feathers. We have such a wide range of color patterns and collages, who couldn't help to be jealous of our beauty? Green in one of the most abundant feather color in our palate; however, we also boast vivid reds and luscious blues to our color palate as well. These colors serve as identifying marks, incentives for the lady parrots, as well as camouflage to help us blend into the surrounding flora and fauna in the jungle. Humans would be silly not to want to boast the luscious colors of our feathers.
Now, I want…
Undergoing 'Kafkan Metamorphosis'
In his well-published and -- renowned short story, "The Metamorphosis," Franz Kafka has elucidated through effective symbolism the influence of change and difference to the psyche of the individual. The protagonist, Gregor Samsa, experienced this when one day, he found himself unable to go about his daily activities anymore because he has transformed -- or more aptly, metamorphosed -- into a giant insect.
In the last few paragraphs of the story, Kafka had effectively conveyed the true feeling of a human-turned-insect, and Gregor's impending realization that he is to eventually leave humanity and choose for himself his own destiny as a human-thinking insect. This event is documented as follows:
'And now?" Gregor asked himself, and looked around in the darkness. He soon made the discovery that he could no longer move at all. This didn't surprise him; in fact, he found it unnatural that up until then he had actually…
Kafka, F. (1996). "The Metamorphosis." In The Metamorphosis and Other Stories. NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
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When the driver looked in the hole, he found a dog sleeping inside -- and only when the dog was chased away would the elephant place the log…Read Full Paper ❯
Transferring and Objectives You Hope to Achieve: Since my ultimate career goal is to gain the knowledge, experience and qualifying skills to be hired by a flourishing corporation in…Read Full Paper ❯
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives.…Read Full Paper ❯
he idea of the communication failure between Gregor and his family is emphasized through the use of a very powerful metaphor, i.e. he doors in Gregor's room. Gregor's…Read Full Paper ❯
" At the same time, it may be a lesson in perspective given that pigs are smarter than dogs and no less appreciative of human companionship than dogs when…Read Full Paper ❯
I mean, yes it is tasty, but what happened to variety? We get such an interesting assortment of food choices in the wild, can't humans be a little…Read Full Paper ❯
Narration Undergoing 'Kafkan Metamorphosis' In his well-published and -- renowned short story, "The Metamorphosis," Franz Kafka has elucidated through effective symbolism the influence of change and difference to the psyche of…Read Full Paper ❯